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06 Intel 8086 Architecture

06 Intel 8086 Architecture

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Published by Vaibhav Monga
Processor Architecture
Processor Architecture

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Published by: Vaibhav Monga on May 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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February 10, 2003©2001-2003 Howard Huang1
Intel 8086 architecture
Today we’ll take a look at Intel’s 8086, which is one of the oldest and yetmost prevalent processor architectures around.
We’ll make many comparisons between the MIPS and 8086 architectures,focusing on registers, instruction operands, memory and addressingmodes, branches, function calls and instruction formats.
This will be a good chance to review the MIPS architecture as well.
February 10, 2003Intel 8086 architecture2
An x86 processor timeline
1971: Intel’s 4004 was the first microprocessor—a 4-bit CPU (like the onefrom CS231) that fit all on one chip.1978: The 8086 was one of the earliest 16-bit processors.1981: IBM uses the 8088 in their little PC project.1989: The 80486 includes a floating-point unit in the same chip as the mainprocessor, and uses RISC-based implementation ideas like pipeliningfor greatly increased performance.1997: The Pentium II is superscalar, supports multiprocessing, and includesspecial instructions for multimedia applications.2002:The Pentium 4 runs at insane clock rates (3.06 GHz), implementsextended multimedia instructions and has a large on-chip cache.
February 10, 2003Intel 8086 architecture3
MIPS registers
The MIPS architecture supports 32registers, each 32-bits wide.
Some registers are reserved by convention.$zeroalways contains a constant 0.$atis used by assemblers in converting pseudo-instructions.$a0-$a3store arguments for function calls.$v0-$v1contain return values from functions.$rais the return address in function calls.$spis the stack pointer.
There are some other reserved registers we didn’t mention:$k0-$k1$fp$gp
Only registers$t0-$t9and$s0-$s7are really “free.”

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