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Cancer

Cancer

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Published by: josephabram051590 on May 22, 2012
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DOI:10.3322/canjclin.8.4.1221958;8;122-129
CA Cancer J Clin
Renilda Hilkemeyer
Nursing Care of Cancer Patients in Hospital and HomeThis information is current as of July 7, 2011
http://caonline.amcancersoc.orgthe World Wide Web at:The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located on 
To subscribe to the print issue of 
ISSN: 1542-4863.OnlineAtlanta GA 30303. (©American Cancer Society, Inc.) All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0007-9235.is owned, published, and trademarked by the American Cancer Society, 250 Williams Street NW,
CA
Wiley-Blackwell. A bimonthly publication, it has been published continuously since November 1950.is published six times per year for the American Cancer Society by
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians
  b  y  on J  ul   y  , 0  (   © m ei   c  an C  an c  e S  o c i   e t   y  ,I  n c . )   c  a onl  i  n e. am c  an c  e s  o c . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 
 
Everyprofessionalnursehasadefiniteresponsibilityincancercontrolandcancernursingwhetheractivelyengagedin
institutional,ublichealth,industrial,
privateduty,officenursing,orevenifsheisinactive.Withasteadyincreaseinthecancerdeathratesince1934,cancernowranksasthesecondcauseofdeathintheUnitedStates.Themortalityrateforcancerin1957was147per100,000population.Thereare245newcasesper100,000populationperyear.Presentratesindicateoneineveryfourpersonsnowlivingwilldevelopcancer.Cancerisnorespecterofageorsex.Itistheleadingcauseofdeathfromdiseaseinchildrenunder15yearsofageandinwomenbetweentheagesof35and55.Morementhanwomendieofcancer;theproportionis53to47.Twenty-fiveyearsago,thesurvivalratewas20percent,butwithearlierdiagnosisandtreatmentithasincreasedto35percent.In1955,themajorityofmenwhodiedbecauseofcancerhadthediseaseinthefollowingsites:digestivetract,includingstomach,37.5percent;respiratorysys
DirectorofNursing,TimeUniversityofTexasM.D.
AmmdersonHospitalandTumorInstitute,Houston.
tem,includinglungsandlarynx,20.0per
cent;andprostate,10.7percent.The
majorityofwomenwhodiedbecauseofcancerhadthediseaseinthefollowingsites:digestivetract,includingstomach,33.7percent;genitaltract,20.1percent;andbreast,19.0percent.Whataretheimplicationsforthenurse?Ineverycommunity,shewillfind:(I)thepotentialcancerpatient,(2)theindividualwithsuspicioussignsorsymptomsofcancer,(3)thepatientwhoisbeingtreatedorhascompletedtreatmentand(4)theterminalcancerpatient.Eachgroupisofinteresttothenurse.Educationaleffortsaredirectedtothecancerpotentialgroup,towardthepreventiveaspectssuchas:(1)alertingindividualstoheedthe✿sevenangersignals,â•(2)re-emphasizingthateverydoctor'sofficeisacancerdetectioncenterand(3)encouragingayearlyphysicalexamination.includingpelvicandrectal.Thenursecanexplainthattheexfoliativecytologictechniqueistheaspirationmethodoftakingavaginalsmearthatisusedtodetectearlyuterinecancer.Byexplainingthatthisprocedureispainlessandthatapelvicexaminationisimportant,thenursecanassistwomeninovercoming
Fig.I.Team:doctor,urse,ocialorker.Fig.2.Reporttoincomingurse.122
NursingCareofCancerPatientsinHospitalandHome
RenildaHilkemeyer,R.N.
  b  y  on J  ul   y  , 0  (   © m ei   c  an C  an c  e S  o c i   e t   y  ,I  n c . )   c  a onl  i  n e. am c  an c  e s  o c . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 
 
theirfearandsenseoffalsemodestyconcerningpelvicandvaginalcytologicalexaminations.Ifthelocalmedicalsocietyapprovesandpathologistsareavailabletoreadthesmears,thenursecanassistinarrangingforshowingsoftheACSfilmonexfoliativecytology,✿TimendTwoWomen.âShecanencouragewomentolearnbreastself-examinationbyutilizingthefilm“¿Breastelf-Examination.â€LocalcancersocietieshavephysiciansavailableontheirEducationCommitteesorSpeaker'sBureaustoassistinsuchprograms.Thenurse,byeducationaswellasbysettinganexampleinhealthpractices,maycontributetothecancerdetectionprogram.Someindividualsmaybeunawareofsuspicioussignsandsymptomsofcancerormaydelayseekingmedicalcarebecauseoffearofadiagnosisofcancer.Analertnurseshouldrecognizesymptomsbyapplyingherbasicknowledgeofthedisease.Byestablishinggoodrapport,andbybeingagoodlistener,shemayelicitinformationofsignsandsymptomswhichmayseemunimportanttothepatient.Theseseeminglyunimportantsymptomsorsignsmaybe:thelumpinthebreast“¿whichausesnopain,âthebleedingorspottingbetweenmenstrualperiodsoftenblamedon✿overexertionorchangeoflife,âbleedingfromtherectum✿probablyfromhemorrhoids,âpersistentindigestionblamedon✿oodhichdidnotagreewithmeâ•orpetechiaoratendencytobleedorbruiseeasilyinthetiredirritablechild✿wholayedtoohard.â•Sheemphasizesthatthesearenotnormalconditionsandencouragesthepatienttoseethephysician.Shesensesthepatient'sfeelingsandfears,andcanpointoutthehopefuloutlookforthecancerpatientwithearlydiagnosisandtreatment.Sheisinapositiontodiscussrecognizedmethodsoftreatmentofcancerbysurgeryandradiation.Shecanrelaypertinentinformationtothephysician,whichmayassisthiminmakingdiagnosis.Whileitisimportanttorememberthatcancershouldnotbeawordtowhichstigmaisattached,thenursemayhavelearnedthattheword✿umorâr“¿growth―smoreacceptabletothepatient.Whendiagnosishasbeenestablished,thequestionarisesastowhatthecancerpatientshouldbetold.Thisdecisionisonewhichthephysicianmustmake,basedonhisknowledgeofthediseaseandtheindividualwhohasthedisease.Whateverdecisionisreached,therearetwoimportantfactors.First,thepatientshouldbetoldsomething.Ifitisnotfeasibletotellthepatienthisdiagnosisandprognosis,enoughinformationshouldbegiventhepatienttoallayhisfearandgainhiscooperation.Thesecondimportantfactoristhatthedoctor,nurse,patient'sfamily,socialserviceworker,ministerandothermembersofthehealthteam,shouldknowwhatinformationhasbeengiventhepatient.Thenurse,inturn,willassumeresponsibilityforgivingnecessaryinformationtoothermembersofthenursingteam.ThiscannotFig.3.Supervisors'conicience.
Fig.4.Selfcare.
123
  b  y  on J  ul   y  , 0  (   © m ei   c  an C  an c  e S  o c i   e t   y  ,I  n c . )   c  a onl  i  n e. am c  an c  e s  o c . o g ownl   o a d  e d f   om 

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