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Parts and Functions of Respiratory System

Parts and Functions of Respiratory System

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Published by: josephabram051590 on May 22, 2012
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Parts and Functions of Respiratory System
Introduction to parts and functions of respiratory system
Terms Definitions
nasal cavityContains nasal septum, turbinates, andcilia.nasal septumDivides nasal cavities into right and leftsides.turbinatesBones that protrude into the nasal cavity-they increase surface area for filtering dustand dirt particles by the mucousmembrane.cilia Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles.sinusesCavities in the skull, ducts connect them tothe nasal cavity, lined with mucousmembrane to warm and moisten the air.Give resonance to voice.types of sinusesFrontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid.pharynxThroat. Common passageway for air andfood. 5" long.epiglottisWhen food is swallowed, this closes overthe opening to the larnyx, preventing foodfrom entering the lungs.larynxVoice box. Triangular chamber belowpharynx. "Adam's Apple".glottis Vocal cords within the larynx.tracheaWindpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternatebands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Linedwith ciliated mucous membrane. Coughingand expectoration gets rid of dust-ladenmucous.bronchiSimilar to trachea with ciliated mucousmembrane and hyaline cartilage. Lowerend of trachea divides into right and leftthis.bronchialtubesCartilaginous plates (instead of c-shapedrings of trachea).
 
bronchiolesThinner walls of smooth muscle, lined withciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci.At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli.alveoliComposed of single layer of epithelialtissue. Inner surfaces covered withsurfactant to keep from collapsing. Eachsurrounded by capillaries. Oxygen andcarbon dioxide exchange takes placebetween these and capillaries.lungsFill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous andspongy- it floats.apex Upper part of lung.base Lower part of lung.right lungLarger and shorter (displaced by liver) andhas three lobes.left lungSmaller (displaced by heart) and has twolobes.pleuraThin, moist, slippery membrane that coverslungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleuralcavity- filled with pleural fluid to preventfriciton.functions of therespiratorysystemRespiration (external, internal, andcellular). Production of sound (vocalcords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration(intercostal muscles lift ribs outward,sternum rises and the diaphragm contractsand moves downward- this increases thevolume of the lungs and the air rushes in).pulmonaryvenilationBreathing.respiratorymovement1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1respiration. Normal adult= 14-20respirations per minute. Increases withexercise, body temperature, and certaindiseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 perminute). Sleep= respirations go down.Emotion can bring respirations up or down.coughingDeep breath followed by forcefulexpulsion of air to clean lower respiratory
 
tract.hiccupsSpasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closureof the glottis- irritation to diaphragm orphrenic nerve.sneezingAir forced through nose to clear respiratorytract.yawningDeep prolonged breath that fills the lungs,increases oxygen within the blood.neural factorsof breathingcontrolRespiratory center located in medullaoblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2and decrease in O2 in the blood will triggerrespiratory center.phrenic nerve Stimulates the diaphragm.chemicalfactors of breathingcontrolDepends on the levels of CO2 in the blood.Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotidarteries sensitive to the amount of bloodoxygen
Introduction to the organs involved in the respiratory system
 
The respiratory system consists of a set of organs that help in breathing of air in and outof the body. They provide a
passage way for air to flow in and out of the body
. Theair taken in is stored in the
lungs where oxygen from the air is diffused into theblood stream
, and carbon di oxide from the blood stream diffuses out of into the air.Thus, the air which we breath in contains more Oxygen while the air which we breathout contains more of Carbon di oxide.
 
The main respiratory organs are as follows:-
 
 
Nose
 
 
Pharynx
 
 
Larynx
 
 
Trachea
 
 
Bronchi
 
 
Lungs
 
Structure and Functions of Organs Involved in theRespiratory System
Nose
 
The nose has two external nostrils . These are separated by a cartilaginous (made up ofcartilage) structure called septum. Hairs are present in the inner lining of the nostrils.

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