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12-1

Solutions Manual for

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

Seventh EditionYunus A. Cengel, Michael A. BolesMcGraw-Hill, 2011

Chapter 12THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTYRELATIONS

PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manualshould be promptly returned unopened to McGraw-Hill:

This Manual is being provided only toauthorized professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliatedtextbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual may not be soldand may not be distributed to or used by any student or other third party. No part of thisManual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic orotherwise, without the prior written permission of McGraw-Hill.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course

12-2

Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations

12-1C

For functions that depend on one variable, they are identical. For functions that depend on two or more variable, the partial differential represents the change in the function with one of the variables as the other variables are held constant.The ordinary differential for such functions represents the total change as a result of differential changes in all variables.

12-2C

(

a

) (

∂

x

)

y

=

dx

; (

b

) (

∂

z

)

y

≤

dz

; and (

c

)

dz

= (

∂

z

)

x

+ (

∂

z

)

y

12-3C

Yes.

12-4C

Yes.

12-5

Air at a specified temperature and specific volume is considered. The changes in pressure corresponding to a certainincrease of different properties are to be determined.

Assumptions

Air is an ideal gas.

Properties

The gas constant of air is

R

= 0.287 kPa·m

3

/kg·K (Table A-1).

Analysis

An ideal gas equation can be expressed as

P = RT/

v

. Noting that

R

is a constant and

P

=

P

(

T

,

v

),

2

v v v v v

d T RdT R
dvT P dT T P dP

−=⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∂∂+⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∂∂=

(

a

) The change in

T

can be expressed as

dT

≅

∆

T

= 300

×

0.01 = 3.0 K. At

v

= constant,

( )

kPa0.7175

=⋅⋅==

/kgm1.2K)K)(3.0/kgmkPa(0.287

33

v

v

dT RdP

(

b

) The change in

v

can be expressed as

d

v

≅

∆

v

= 1.2

×

0.01 = 0.012 m

3

/kg. At

T

= constant,

( )

kPa0.7175

−=⋅⋅−=−=

23332

/kg)m(1.2/kg)mK)(0.012K)(300/kgmkPa(0.287

v v

d T RdP

T

(

c

) When both

v

and

T

increases by 1%, the change in

P

becomes

0

=−+=+=

)7175.0(7175.0)()(

T

dP dP dP

v

Thus the changes in

T

and

v

balance each other.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course

12-3

12-6

Helium at a specified temperature and specific volume is considered. The changes in pressure corresponding to acertain increase of different properties are to be determined.

Assumptions

Helium is an ideal gas

Properties

The gas constant of helium is

R

= 2.0769 kPa·m

3

/kg·K (Table A-1).

Analysis

An ideal gas equation can be expressed as

P = RT/

v

. Noting that R is a constant and

P

=

P

(

T

,),

v

2

v v v v v v

d T RdT R
d T P dT T P dP

−=⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∂∂+⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∂∂=

(

a

) The change in

T

can be expressed as

dT

≅

∆

T

= 300

×

0.01 = 3.0 K. At = constant,

v

( )

kPa5.192

=⋅⋅==

/kgm1.2K)K)(3.0/kgmkPa(2.0769

33

v

v

dT RdP

(

b

) The change in

v

can be expressed as

d

v

≅

∆

v

= 1.2

×

0.01 = 0.012 m

3

/kg. At

T

= constant,

( )

kPa5.192

−=⋅⋅=−=

23332

/kg)m(1.2)mK)(0.012K)(300/kgmkPa(2.0769

v v

d T RdP

T

(

c

) When both

v

and

T

increases by 1%, the change in

P

becomes

0

=−+=+=

)192.5(192.5)()(

T

dP dP dP

v

Thus the changes in

T

and

v

balance each other.

12-7

Nitrogen gas at a specified state is considered. The

c

p

and

c

v

of the nitrogen are to be determined using Table A-18,and to be compared to the values listed in Table A-2

b

.

Analysis

The

c

p

and

c

v

of ideal gases depends on temperature only, and are expressed as

c

p

(

T

) =

dh

(

T

)

/dT

and

c

v

(

T

)

=du

(

T

)

/dT

. Approximating the differentials as differences about 400 K, the

c

p

and

c

v

values are determined to be

( ) ( )( )

KkJ/kg1.045

⋅=−−=−−=⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆∆≅⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ =

≅=

K 390)(410kJ/kg.011,347)/28(11,932
K 390410K 390K 410
)()(
)K 400(

K 400K 400

hhT T hdT T dhc

T T p

c

p

h

(Compare: Table A-2b at 400 K

→

c

p

= 1.044 kJ/kg·K)

T

( ) ( )( )

KkJ/kg0.748

⋅=−−=−−=⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆∆≅⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ =

≅=

K 390)(410kJ/kg08,104)/28.(8,523
K 390410K 390K 410
)()(
)K 400(

K 400K 400

uuT T udT T duc

T T

v

(Compare: Table A-2b at 400 K

→

c

v

= 0.747 kJ/kg·K)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course

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