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Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Chapter 12

# Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Chapter 12

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12-1
Solutions Manual for
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach
Seventh EditionYunus A. Cengel, Michael A. BolesMcGraw-Hill, 2011
Chapter 12THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTYRELATIONS

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This Manual is being provided only toauthorized professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliatedtextbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual may not be soldand may not be distributed to or used by any student or other third party. No part of thisManual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic orotherwise, without the prior written permission of McGraw-Hill.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course

12-2
Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations
12-1C
For functions that depend on one variable, they are identical. For functions that depend on two or more variable, the partial differential represents the change in the function with one of the variables as the other variables are held constant.The ordinary differential for such functions represents the total change as a result of differential changes in all variables.
12-2C
(
a
) (
x
)
=
dx
; (
b
) (
z
)

dz
; and (
c
)
dz
= (
z
)
x
+ (
z
)

12-3C
Yes.
12-4C
Yes.
12-5
Air at a specified temperature and specific volume is considered. The changes in pressure corresponding to a certainincrease of different properties are to be determined.
Assumptions
Air is an ideal gas.
Properties
The gas constant of air is
R
= 0.287 kPa·m
3
/kg·K (Table A-1).
Analysis
An ideal gas equation can be expressed as
P = RT/
. Noting that
R
is a constant and
P
=
P
(
,
),
2
RdT  R dv P dT  P dP
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ + ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
(
a
) The change in
can be expressed as
dT

= 300
×
0.01 = 3.0 K. At
= constant,
( )
kPa0.7175
===
/kgm1.2K)K)(3.0/kgmkPa(0.287
33
dT  RdP
(
b
) The change in
can be expressed as

= 1.2
×
0.01 = 0.012 m
3
/kg. At
= constant,
( )
kPa0.7175
===
23332
/kg)m(1.2/kg)mK)(0.012K)(300/kgmkPa(0.287
RdP
(
c
) When both
and
increases by 1%, the change in
P
becomes
0
=+=+=
)7175.0(7175.0)()(
dP dP dP
Thus the changes in
and
balance each other.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course

12-3
12-6
Helium at a specified temperature and specific volume is considered. The changes in pressure corresponding to acertain increase of different properties are to be determined.
Assumptions
Helium is an ideal gas
Properties
The gas constant of helium is
R
= 2.0769 kPa·m
3
/kg·K (Table A-1).
Analysis
An ideal gas equation can be expressed as
P = RT/
. Noting that R is a constant and
P
=
P
(
,),

2
RdT  R  P dT  P dP
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ + ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
(
a
) The change in
can be expressed as
dT

= 300
×
0.01 = 3.0 K. At = constant,

( )
kPa5.192
===
/kgm1.2K)K)(3.0/kgmkPa(2.0769
33
dT  RdP
(
b
) The change in
can be expressed as

= 1.2
×
0.01 = 0.012 m
3
/kg. At
= constant,
( )
kPa5.192
===
23332
/kg)m(1.2)mK)(0.012K)(300/kgmkPa(2.0769
RdP
(
c
) When both
and
increases by 1%, the change in
P
becomes
0
=+=+=
)192.5(192.5)()(
dP dP dP
Thus the changes in
and
balance each other.
12-7
Nitrogen gas at a specified state is considered. The
c
p
and
c
of the nitrogen are to be determined using Table A-18,and to be compared to the values listed in Table A-2
b
.
Analysis
The
c
p
and
c
of ideal gases depends on temperature only, and are expressed as
c
p
(
) =
dh
(
)
/dT
and
c
(
)
=du
(
)
/dT
. Approximating the differentials as differences about 400 K, the
c
p
and
c
values are determined to be
( ) ( )( )
KkJ/kg1.045
=== ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
=
390)(410kJ/kg.011,347)/28(11,932 390410390410 )()( )400(
400400
hhhdT dhc
p

c
p
h
(Compare: Table A-2b at 400 K

c
p
= 1.044 kJ/kg·K)

( ) ( )( )
KkJ/kg0.748
=== ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
=
390)(410kJ/kg08,104)/28.(8,523 390410390410 )()( )400(
400400
uuudT duc
(Compare: Table A-2b at 400 K

c
= 0.747 kJ/kg·K)
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course