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Creating Drug Addicts in China by R. Tintle

Creating Drug Addicts in China by R. Tintle

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Creating Drug Addicts In China: How British Sold, Smuggled, and Warred with China to Create a Demand for Opium Among Chinese Consumers. Comments and notes for students from Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. Keywords: Taiping Rebellion, Opium Wars, Lin Zexu , British, George Elliott of England , Qi Shan, Hong Kong in 1839, Unequal Treaty System, Cohong Merchants, Mexican silver, Hakka, Hong Xiuchan, Christians in China, Confucian exam...
Creating Drug Addicts In China: How British Sold, Smuggled, and Warred with China to Create a Demand for Opium Among Chinese Consumers. Comments and notes for students from Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. Keywords: Taiping Rebellion, Opium Wars, Lin Zexu , British, George Elliott of England , Qi Shan, Hong Kong in 1839, Unequal Treaty System, Cohong Merchants, Mexican silver, Hakka, Hong Xiuchan, Christians in China, Confucian exam...

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. on May 22, 2012
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05/22/2012

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Creating Drug Addicts In China
 by Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. 1
Creating Drug Addicts In China: How British Sold, Smuggled, and Warred with China toCreate a Demand for Opium Among Chinese Consumers.
Comments and notes for students from Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. Keywords: Taiping Rebellion, Opium Wars
 
Lin Zexu destroyed 2.6 million pounds of opium by mixing it with lye andthrowing it into the sea. Before dumping the toxic combination into the water, Lin Zexu prayed that the opium would not harm any ocean life. The dumping created an ecologicalaquatic disaster. This is one example of how China’s ruled fought against the Britishmerchants moved into Macau. The British in China retaliated against the destruction of their merchandise (the opium) by sinking China owned ships. In England, Britishmerchants demanded that the British government declare war on China because China’sgovernment had destroyed the private property (the opium) of British merchants.The First Opium War by England against China (1839-1841)The British Navy invaded Hong Kong in 1839. George Elliott of Englandcommanded 4000 troops and carried 16000 gallons of rum. The British Navy blockadedone of the ports in Canton, sending its troops inland to the scared city of Tianjin, locatednear China’s capitol. Charles Elliott began what the British government termed“negotiations” with the Qi Shan. Given the fact that the British Navy had already sunk China’s navy vessels and other ships, and invaded Canton as well as Tianjin the Britishgovernment’s terming the debate between Elliott and Qi Shan “negotiations” wasderisory. It was a command for access to China and the ability to sell opium to China’s populace. England’s quick and successful invasion humiliated China’s rulers.Ultimately, China’s rulers blamed Lin Zexu for destroying the British opium. Lin wentfrom hero to pariah; Qi Shan banished Lin Zexu from the urban center and sent him tonorthwest China to live in exile.
 
Creating Drug Addicts In China
 by Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. 2Qi Shan refused to agree to the surrender terms demanded by England. Some of the demands included the1)
 
ceding of Hong Kong,2)
 
six million dollars in Mexican silver,3)
 
the dissolution of the Cohong merchants system.After China’s refusal to surrender, the British proceeded to blockade the Yangtze River.Then they attacked and occupied the historically significant city of Nanjing. By 1842China agreed to a peace treaty. This first treaty would evolve into multiple treaties over the next decade.The first of the “Unequal Treaty System” in which China surrendered many points to the British. It demanded the opening of five of China’s ports to Britishmerchants. A caveat of this first treaty was that British citizens and other foreigners inthese ports were not subject to China’s laws or legal system in anyway. The British inthese locations had a version of diplomatic immunity. The British further demanded:1)
 
China cede Hong Kong;2)
 
China end the Cohong merchant system in Canton,3)
 
British control of tariffs,4)
 
British troops would remain stationed in China,5)
 
Chinese and Manchu writers and translators of the treaty cease to use derogatoryand racist terms when referring to the British.Besides the treaty demands the British required that China pay war reparations:1)
 
the cost of the opium that Lin Zexu had destroyed,2)
 
six million dollars in Mexican silver,
 
Creating Drug Addicts In China
 by Rhonda Tintle, Ph.D. 33)
 
three million Mexican dollars to compensate for debts owed to the Cohongmerchants, twelve million dollars in expenses to compensate for the British Navyinvading China, these debts would accrue interest at a rate of 5% until China had paid England in full.These terms and the British occupation of Hong Kong, Canton, and mainland of Chinahobbled the already unstable government in China. This period is how GunboatDiplomacy was introduced to China. The British freely availed themselves of the buyingand selling as well as manufacturing items at reduced labor costs in China. Theyestablish factories and traded cotton, tea, wool, ivory, and opium.In 1844 the United States (US) geared up to compete with England for China.The US was disgusted in general with England’s invasion of and subjugation of China.US officials request and were granted extraterritoriality status in China from the Qing.US missionaries flooded onto the mainland of China and established cemeteries,churches, schools, medical clinics, and diligently studied Chinese languages. USmerchants began trading with China’s merchants for tea and silk. The foremost trading port was Canton. In 1849 the gold rush in the US began, especially in NorthernCalifornia, and this brought boosters from the US who worked with job-agents in Chinato hire Chinese miners, shop owners, cooks, and workers to the US on the credit-ticketsystem. The British in China tried to stop US trade in China, especially in Canton, aswell as inhibit the Chinese merchants from trading with countries other than England or at least England controlled countries.Beginning in 1851 and continuing until 1864 (eventually petering out in 1868)was the Taiping Rebellion. This civil war in China started with the revolutionary leader 

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