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Appl Statistics

# Appl Statistics

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Published by: Abhijit Kar Gupta on May 22, 2012

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Statistics, Probability and  Applications

Abhijit Kar Gupta

1
Statistics, Probability and Applications
by - Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta
,
kg.abhi@gmail.com

Before you begin:
This is a short course [based on the lecture notes to the M.Sc (Geography) students of DistanceEducation] on the elements of Statistics and the concept of Probability supplemented withexamples and illustrations. The purpose of this general and basic course is to serve as aguideline to the practical usages by any student
Statistics, Probability and Applications
What is Statistics?
Statistics is a systematic presentation of data out of which we may conclude somethingmeaningful.Just a collection of raw data is meaningless unless we are able to calculate some quantities outof them. It is only interesting when some patterns emerge out of the data that arerepresentative of some event or measurement.After we collect a set of data, the first thing we like to do is to obtain the
central tendency
of it.
Central Tendency
The central tendency of a data set is obtained by calculating
mean, median and mode.
Mean:
There are various kinds of mean, (i)
arithmetic
, (ii)
geometric
, (iii)
harmonic
. We usually calculatearithmetic mean and this we commonly call mean or average.Suppose, we have a set of
-data points:
.

Arithmetic mean (A.M.)

̅



(1)
The arithmetic mean or average is the measure of the ‘middle’ of the data set.

2
Statistics, Probability and Applications
by - Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta
,
kg.abhi@gmail.com

Now suppose,

appears


times,

appears


times and so on in the data set. Here

,

… are called the frequencies. The arithmetic mean in this case is

̅






, (2)
where

.Formula (2) is called the
weighted mean
.
Note
: In the formula (2), if we put

for all
, we get back formula (1).The above formula (2) can also be written as
̅


,
Where
is the relative frequency for each
(each data point).Example #1The ages of father, mother, son and daughter in a family are 60 years, 55 years, 25 yearsand 20 years respectively. What is the average age of the family members?
Ans.
Average age =



years.Example #2
In the game of ‘Ludo’ (dice throwing), you obtain ‘1’ two times, ‘2’ five times, ‘3’ twotimes, ‘4’ six times, ‘5’ four times and ‘6’ only once from the random throwing of a dice.
What is the average value you get?
Ans.
Average value =



.

Geometric mean (G.M.):
G.M.
=

∏


Harmonic mean (H.M.):
H.M.
=


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