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RT Vol. 9, No. 1 Grappling with cold---cold reality

RT Vol. 9, No. 1 Grappling with cold---cold reality

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Published by Rice Today
Grappling with cold
by Lanie C. Reyes

IRRI, in collaboration with the Republic of Korea, is developing new rice varieties that will soon warm up to cold temperatures
and remains during the critical ecent headlines read: Cold A cold-tolerant line (indicated by red stage of the crop’s development, spell compounds woes arrows) performs well in an experimental field at chuncheon, South Korea. it is like a silent curse with of Palestinian farmers; its destructive spells, and it Cold spell hits farme
Grappling with cold
by Lanie C. Reyes

IRRI, in collaboration with the Republic of Korea, is developing new rice varieties that will soon warm up to cold temperatures
and remains during the critical ecent headlines read: Cold A cold-tolerant line (indicated by red stage of the crop’s development, spell compounds woes arrows) performs well in an experimental field at chuncheon, South Korea. it is like a silent curse with of Palestinian farmers; its destructive spells, and it Cold spell hits farme

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Published by: Rice Today on May 23, 2012
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10/02/2012

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R
ecent headlines read:
Cold  spell compounds woesof Palestinian farmers
;
 Cold spell hits farmersin Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
;
 
and
 Longest-ever cold spell hitsnorthern Vietnam.
Behind these headlinesare agricultural crops placed in jeopardy, especially rice, which isoriginally a plant that has no built-in mechanism against cold.Because of centuries of genetic selection, some ricevarieties can already be grown in areaswhere the temperature is low. Of thetwo major groups of rice, japonicavarieties can thrive better in temperateregions than indica varieties, which aremore common in hot and humid areas.Hence, japonica rice is widely grown intemperate and subtemperate countries,the Southern Cone of South America, theMediterranean climate zone, and high-altitude areas in the tropics.
About 20 percent of the rice areasworldwide are planted with temperaterice, which comes from countries asdiverse as Australia, Turkey, Japan,China, Republic of Korea (SouthKorea), Democratic People's Republicof Korea (North Korea), Uzbekistan,India, Kazakhstan, Bangladesh,Tanzania, Madagascar, and the UnitedStates.
And, the demand for cultivatingtemperate japonica rice may increase because of some erratic changes inclimate in some parts of the world. Tocite an example of an extreme weather change, in December 2009, Orissa Statein India, known for its hot and humidclimate, was gripped by a cold wavethat dipped as low as 8 °C. This drop intemperature set a new record in the statewithin a period of 50 years.
Cold damage
Although japonica rice varieties in Japanand Korea produce higher yields, whencold temperature blows its chilly air and remains during the criticalstage of the crop’s development,it is like a silent curse withits destructive spells, and itdetermines rice’s fate: a less productive season.In South Korea, for example,marked drops in temperature in1971, 1980, and 2003 damaged17%, 80%, and 20% of its totalrice area, respectively. In 1980,yield loss in milled rice hit 3.9 tons per hectare. In China alone, therecorded yield loss per year becauseof cold is 3–5 million tons. More recently,in Vietnam, the 30-day cold spell that hit inFebruary 2008 reportedly destroyed morethan 53,000 hectares of rice. Needless to say, cold temperature isone of the major environmental stressesin rice production.
by
Lanie C. Reyes
with cold
IRRI, in collaboration with the Republic of Korea, is developing new rice varietiesthat will soon warm up to cold temperatures
Rice Today
 
January-March 2010
20
A cold-tat  (
indicated by red arrows
) ps w  a xptaf at c, St Ka.dr. Jin-chul S, a, c Sstat,rdA, sws a -tat g  v-p tg irri-Ka aat.
Jung-pil suh (2)
 
No pollen, no grain
According to Kshirod Kumar Jena, plant breeder and International RiceResearch Institute (IRRI) countryrepresentative for Korea based in Suwon,cold temperature can damage rice in itsgermination stage, seedling stage, and/or reproductive stage. However, a drop intemperature during rice’s early vegetative
stage until its grain-lling stage causes
the most severe damage. Dr. Jenaexplained that cold stress hinders rice plants from forming fertile pollen that iscrucial for fertilization. Consequently,they fail to produce grains, which leadsto a decrease in yield or, worse, no yieldat all.Moreover, Dr. Jena mentionedthat low temperature impairs seedgermination, reduces seedling vigor,weakens rice’s photosynthetic ability byinducing leaf discoloration, reduces plantheight, produces degenerated spikes,delays days to heading, reduces spikelet
fertility, promotes irregular grain lling
and maturity, and leads to poor grainquality.
It’s in the genes
Rice breeders see no other way to reducecold-related losses in rice productionthan genetically improving cold-sensitivecultivars using modern breedingtechniques. The sequencing of the ricegenome and the development of marker-assisted selection (MAS) have fast-tracked their research efforts.“Cold tolerance is a complex trait; itis controlled by many different genes,”Dr. Jena said. “But now, it has becomeeasy to identify the correct DNAmarkers linked to the quantitative traitloci (QTLs) conferring cold tolerance.”By developing desirable mapping populations and accurate phenotypingfor cold-tolerance and -sensitive traits,and conducting QTL analysis, Dr.Jena and his team were able to identifythree QTLs or genomic regions fromchromosomes 3, 7, and 9—QTLs thathave a direct link to cold tolerance at thereproductive stage. Through this, they
identied markers that linked the QTLs
to seed fertility.IRRI started collaboration withSouth Korea's Rural DevelopmentAdministration (RDA) using theInternational Rice Cold Tolerance Nursery (IRCTN) in 1978. However,recently, in collaboration with RDA's National Institute of Crop Science, a newsource was discovered, a cold-tolerant breeding line—IR66160-121-4-4-2—thatinherited cold-tolerance genes fromIndonesia’s tropical japonica cultivar Jimbrug and northern China’s temperate japonica cultivar Shen-Nung89-366.Using this line, Dr.Jena and his teamfrom RDA, namely,Jung-Pil Suh, Ji-UngJeung, Jung-Il Lee,Jong-Doo Yea, Jeong-Hee Lee, Yeon-GyuKim, and Jin-ChulShin, producedrecombinant inbredlines (RILs) bycrossing cold-tolerantand cold-sensitivecultivars. They thenevaluated these RIL progenies under two conditions: one, by subjecting themto cold-water stress at 18–19 °C in the
eld; two, by exposing them to cool air 
temperature in the greenhouse at 18 °C.After the experiment, they selected some promising cold-tolerant lines that alsohave desirable seed fertility and earlymaturity traits.
Concerted eforts
To further strengthen internationalefforts to develop cold-tolerant varieties,IRRI established the Temperate RiceResearch Consortium (TRRC) in 2007.Its country members are Australia,Bhutan, Chile, China, Egypt, Japan,Kazakhstan, Nepal, the Philippines,Russia, South Korea, Spain, Tanzania,Uruguay, Uzbekistan, and the U.S.Dr. Seong-Hee Lee, Korean member of the IRRI Board of Trustees, wasinstrumental in the formation of thisConsortium, bringing along with him
the full nancial support of the RDA.
A steering committee and four workinggroups were formed. Each workinggroup focused on one of the four major 
constraints identied for temperate rice:
(1) yield potential and grain quality, (2) blast resistance, (3) cold tolerance, and
(4) nitrogen and water use efciency.
The third group, in particular,aimed to evaluate a selected number of cold-tolerant germplasm accessions provided by working group partnersat seedling and reproductive stages
21
Rice Today
 
January-March 2010
Some memberS  t Trrc a (l-r) ds. Jg-d Ya a Jg-i l,  s, nata ist-tt  cp S (nicS), rdA, St Ka; d. Jg-P S,  , irri-Ka of;d. Sa-J Yag,  , nicS; d. iva Sp, pat , A-rssa r rsa ist-tt, Kasa; d. Ja; a d. Sat haav, pat , uzksta r rsa isttt.dr. K.K. Ja, pat  a irri ty ps-tatv  Ka, xpasw -tat s avp.
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