was a champion of standardization. He believed in mass production, in affordabledemocratic art. Van de Velde, on the other hand, saw mass production as threat tocreativity and individuality.)Though the spontaneous personality of the designer became more central than the historical"style" of a design, certain tendencies stood out: reformist neo-gothicinfluences, rustic and
"cottagey" surfaces, repeating designs, vertical and elongated forms. In order to express the beauty inherent in craft, some products were deliberately left slightly unfinished, resultingin a certain rustic and robust effect. There were alsosocialistundertones to this movement,in that another primary aim was for craftspeople to derive satisfaction from what they did.This satisfaction, the proponents of this movement felt, was totally denied in theindustrialised processes inherent in compartmentalised machine production.In fact, the proponents of the Arts and Crafts movement were against the principle of adivision of labour , which in some cases could be independent of the presence or absence of machines. They were in favour of the idea of the master craftsman, creating all the parts of an item of furniture, for instance, and also taking a part in its assembly and finishing, withsome possible help by apprentices. This was in contrast to work environments such as theFrench Manufactories, where everything was oriented towards the fastest production possible. (For example, one person or team would handle all the legs of a piece of furniture, another all the panels, another assembled the parts and yet another painted andvarnished or handled other finishing work, all according to a plan laid out by a furnituredesigner who would never actually work on the item during its creation.) The Arts andCrafts movement sought to reunite what had been ripped asunder in the nature of humanwork, having the designer work with his hands at every step of creation. Some of the mostfamous apostles of the movement, such as Morris, were more than willing to design products for machine production, when this did not involve the wretched division of labour and loss of craft talent, which they denounced. Morris designed numerous carpets for machine production in series.
 History of the movement
Red Housein London.Red House,Bexleyheath, London(1859), by architect Philip Webbfor Morris himself, is a
work exemplary of this movement in its early stages. There is a deliberate attempt atexpressing surface textures of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with anasymmetrical and quaint building composition. Morris later formed theKelmscott Press and also had a shop where he designed and sold products such as wallpaper, textiles,furniture, etc. Morris's own ideas emerged from the thinking that had informedPre-Raphaelitism, especially following the publication of Ruskin's book
The Stones of Venice
Unto this Last
, both of which sought to relate the moral and social health of a nation tothe qualities of its architecture and designs. The decline of rural handicrafts, correspondingto the rise of industrialised society, was a cause for concern for many designers and social