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06/30/2013

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18
Chapter
Contents:
A
B
Trigonometric ratios from the unitcircle
C
The multiples of 30
o
and 45
o
D
Graphing trigonometric functions
E
Modelling with sine functions
F
Trigonometric equations
G
Negative and complementaryangle formulae
H

OPENING PROBLEM
438
In this chapter we extend our knowledge of trigonometry in a number of areas. We willconsider angles in radian measure, the sine function and how it can be used to model natural phenomena, and we will also learn more trigonometric identities.An aeroplane propeller is painted brown, but with white tips so they can be clearlyseen. The propeller rotates anticlockwisewhen viewed from the front.Suppose the propeller blades are all
1
m long, and theorigin is the centre of the propeller. We label the tip of one blade as point P.
1
As the propeller rotates, what function describes the height of the point P above theorigin?
2
What shape does the graph of this function have?Click on the icon to watch a demonstration of the propeller’s motion. Check your answers with those obtained in the demonstration.Instead of using degrees, there is another way of measuring angle size. We can use
,which measure the arc length around a circle from the angle of zero degrees.Consider the unit circle diagram shown.As the radius
r
= 1
, the circumference of the circleis
2
¼
£
1 = 2
¼:
So, if arc length is used to measure angle size, then
2
¼
´
360
o
.
¼
c
´
180
o
is worth remembering.In general, we leave off the symbol for radians altogether.So,
30
o
´
¼
6
45
o
´
¼
4
90
o
´
¼
2
180
o
´
¼
270
o
etc.
A
DEMO
P
All angles are measuredfrom the positive -axis.The anticlockwisedirection is positive.
x
x
1
-
1
1
y
P( , )
x y
q
-
1
´
¼
23

439As
¼
c
´
180
o
1
c
´
¡
180
¼
¢
¼
57
:
3
o
One
is the angle swept out by an arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.In higher mathematics, only radian measure is used. It is more convenient, and results usingradian measure are usually simpler.For example: Using degrees,arc AB
=
µ
µ
360
£
2
¼r
=
.
The following diagram is usefulfor converting from one systemof measure to the other:Convert
150
o
¼
.
150
o
´
150
£
¼
180
c
´
5
¼
6
c
or
150
o
´
5
£
30
o
´
5
£
¼
6
´
5
¼
6
Convert
131
:
8
o
3
significant figures.
131
:
8
o
´
131
:
8
£
¼
180
¼
2
:
30
7
¼
6
7
¼
6
´
7
¼
6
£
180
o
¼
´
210
o
Example 3
Self Tutor
Example 2
Self Tutor
Example 1
Self Tutor
x y
1
c
q
AB
180180
££
¼¼
30
o
111
o