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HUIZINGA, Johan Ch.1 Philosophy and History (Page 1-52)

HUIZINGA, Johan Ch.1 Philosophy and History (Page 1-52)

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03/27/2014

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ADEFINITIONOFTHECONCEPTOFHISTORY
By
JORANHUIZINGA
A
GOODdefininonmustbesuccmct,
1
eItmustWIththegreatestpossibleconcisenessofeXpreqSIOnaccuratelyand
completelyestablish
theconcept
Adefinitiondehrmts
themeamngofaparticularwordwhichserve,tomdicatcaparucu-larphenomenonIn
thedefinition
thc
phenomenonas
awholemust
be"includedandcomprehended
Should
dUy
essential
partsfalloutsideofthedefiruuon,there
IS
somctlnngwrong\'\rth
It
Ontheotherhand,adefiruuonneedgivenoaccount
ofdetail-
].ct
us
brmg
tothe
tevt
uf
thesercduiremcnts
someofthecurrent
defiruuons
ofthe
c
onrcptofhistorv
Most
worksonthe
epistemologyofhistoryrefrainfrom
an
cxphcrtdctcrmmation
ofthefundamental
concept
They
takethephenomenonitself
.1'1,)
knownquantnyDrfiruuonsarc'mostn-adrlyfound
III
manualv
or
te.....-books
01
histoncalmethod
Let
u£-mglc
outtwo
oftheseEBemhcim\
well-known
Lehrbucliderhistor:
rchcn
MethodeundderGcschuhivplulosoph:«,
am]
t}1C'
more
recentandcom
ive
workof
'AT
Bauer,
E.znJultrunf!,
zn
davStudsumderGe-schichtc
I
Bernheim'sdefimuonintlnfirstediuonof
hrs
hookl188g)readsa,follows'History
I'
thescienceofthedevelopmentofmankind
111
theiraruvnyaqsocialbl.ln~"Shottly
.tHc
rwardstherebeganthehvcly
controvervy,
.urrcdup
Dy
Lamprecht,
aboutthe
nature
of
histoneal
knowledge11m
led
Bernheim
III
thethirdcdruon
of
hl'>
work
(th.,
.,r,
anddatesfrom11144)
to
express
III
the
dcfirnnon
Insattitudetowards
the
questionswhichwerem
the
au
Accordingly,
10
the
edmon'lumbered
3/4,
ofthe
year
190'j,
this
reads
as
follows
'The
serene
eof
history
I~
he
~c)("n<
e
whichmv
('~tII!".,tl'
and
narrate,
In
ca'J,>.-I
conncxion
thefactsofthe
development
of
mankind
III
their
acnviues
(mdrviduala'>
well
astypical
and
c
ollccuvc)
as
socialbcmgs'Intheedmonnumbered5/6,of
JI)()IJ,
'thetarts'art'further
parnculanzcdas
'thefacts
In
hentemporalandspatial
,Second,unproved,edition,Tubingen,1928The
first
appeared
In
'921.
4144
B
 
2
ADEFINITIONOFTHEdeterminations',whileinsteadof
'10
causalconnexion'wenowread
'10
relationsofpsycho-physitalcausality'Bauer'sdefimnon
I
ISasfollows'HistoryIStheSCIencewhichseekstodescnbeandWIthsympathetIcmsight
(naclifuklcnd)
toexplainthephenomenaofhfe,sofarasconcernschangesbroughtabout-hytherelationofmentosociety,"selectmgthemwrthaneyeto
their
effectonsubsequentepochsorwithregardtotheirtypicalquahues,andconccntratmgchieflyonthosechangeswhicharetemporallyandspatiallyirreprodu-cible
'3
InspiteoftheabbreviationtowhichIthasbeensubjectedSInceItSfirstformulation,thesuccmctnessofBauer'sdefimuon
L\
notstnkmg,andItmaybedoubtedwhetherthesohcitudcwithwhichashortaccountofmethodologyISInterpolatedmtothedefirutionmakesupforthisdefectAmoresenousobjec-tion,whichtellsagainstbothauthors,hes
In
hefactthatBaueraswellasBernheimrestnctsinadvancetherangeoftheword
'history',
Bernheim,
Indefinmgtheconcept,expresslyconcernshimselfsolelyWIth'thescienceofhistory',WIthhistoryasaSCIenceThISagreesWIthhISdocrrmethathistorypassessue-cessivelythroughthephasesofthenarratrvc(dcscnptrve)andthe
pragmatic
or
didactic
form,beforeattammgmthe
third
phase,whichhecallsthegeneticorevolutionary,ItSgenumecharacterasascienceWhetherthe
tnpartrte
dnI1>10nutlmedbythishighauthorityI~mallrespectssatisfactoryISnothere
In
quesuonIndeed,forBernheim,becauseofthisdI\ISlOnofhis,thequestionwhethertheproductsofearlyandoutgrownphasesofhistoricalstudyanswertohISdcfimtionmaybeamatteroflesssigmficanceBauerstartsoutfromtheword'history',butrmrncdiatelylaysItdownthatIt
IS
a'science'Theaccountwhichhegoesonto
gtve
ofIts
function
andessenceconcerns,
In
act,
just
asmuchasthatofBernheim,thefunctionandessenceofmodernhistoricalSCienceBauerhimselfhowever,recognizesthis
restriction
ofthevalidityofhISdefinition,andclosesWIththeremark'Everyepoch,Infact,hasItSpeculiarconceptionoftheessenceand
1
LocCIt,P17Withthe'1uahj,
"I'
,J
tlI"
'WIthoutlaYlOgunduestressonthevalueofadefirnnon
oflll",
r",nrepl,
J
I"
tOI},'"See
the
realsoforsomeotherexample,ofdefimuons
2
Inthefirst..dmonof19~[toh"man"",,"
1
Frrstediuon'the
rrr
e
pr~uC1hl~.mgul
III
y(
which
15
grven
ID
thefactthattheyareWsllIlgw.shedbycoere
lal.l,
I.WIth
aI'u'"wartuneandaparticularplace'
 
CONCEPTOFHISTORY3fun~tIonoflustory'But
If
theword'history'possessesnever-thelessamoregeneralsense,
n.
mustsullbepossiblesotodefineItastomakeItexpresstheconceptionofeveryepochInrespecttotheuseoftheword,EnghshoccupiesanuitepecuharposiuonromparedwithGermanandDutchandalsoFrenchTotheword
Gesduchte,Geschiedems,
10
-thetwoformerlanguages,thefollowingmaybesaidtoapplyItsuggests
(1)
somethingthathashappened,
(2)
thenarrationofsome-thmzthathallhappened,(1)thesciencewhichendeavourstoheabletogl\cthisnarrativeIncommonusagethesecond~.memayIairlybesaidtopredommateThefirsthatnowa-daysallhutdisappeared,
Geschtchte
or
Gescluedems,
10
thesenseof'somethingthathavhappened',hasbcenreplacedbytheeq
111\
alent
Geschehms
or
Gebeurtems
A
traceofItsurvives
10
SUI
hphrasesas
dasut
mZT
nne
schon«
Gesduchte
Moreover,
10
bothlanguagestheword
IlIS/OIle
o('cu)9le<;
J.
secondaryplace,withnearlythe'lamedoubleoreventhreefoldmean
109
The
French
htstour,
100,
comculcs
almost
completely
WithItInEnglish,ontheotherhand,theRomance
hsstona
hasbecome
story,
whuh,however,o(cuplesonlythesphereofmeamna
(2)
'the
Ildlldl1011
ofsomething
that
has
happened'.
Moreover,
It\-\asonly
later
onthat
tec
hmcaltcrmmology,
borrowing
afreshfromthelanguage
01
thelearned,introducedtheword
hillory.
In
ItS
prcdormn.mtlv
tec
hmcalapplrcauon,thewordstands
l
loser
to
theorimnalGreek,whn
hmeant
precisely'that
wlnrh
werometoknow
,1'
aresultofmqmry'In
another
rl'spl'(
t
tooEnglish
1~
different,
inasmuch
av
}'lflory
hasretainedmorr-deb-mtdyand
(('l
longe-rthemoregeneralmeaning,m
w
hie
htherclauontothepast
IS
notessentialFrenchhall
It
<nll
10
hlJIOITe
nuturellc,
English
w
orksabout
I
800
stillconstantlyhavc
}"slory
10
thetitle
III
a
mue
hwidersense
Now,whether
wr-
uscall'
namefor
luvtoi
v
oranother,as'loona\
we
l.tytheemphasison1tscharacterasascience,'It
follows
at
oncethatmost
ofthegreat
hisrorrographcr-
(J[
formertunes
tan
onlyconstramcdlvbebroughtunderthe
glvcn
defim-nons
If
thedefimnonofBernheimurBauer
!5
appliedto
,Intheoldsystemofthe
,c"."nc~,
h..tnrynever
OCCUPied
anindependentplace'Jherewas,however,bvwayofcompensation,aMuseofh,<lurySrhopeuhauer
01111
contestedhcr
competencyasa,r,rnre
InEngland~\en
to-d..
ya
d
e
lenceofthescienuficvalueofhistory,
If
nulnecessary,
IS
neverthele••
appropriate,see
RSetonWat.on,
APleafortheSturfyofContempllraryIlutory,
Ul
the
penodieal
l/uIIJT)I,
XIVI,1929

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