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Dynamic of the Vortex Structure of a Jet Impinging on a Convex Surface

Dynamic of the Vortex Structure of a Jet Impinging on a Convex Surface

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Dynamics of the vortex structure of a jet impinging on aconvex surface
A.S. Fleischer
a,1
, K. Kramer
b
, R.J. Goldstein
c,*
a
Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085, USA
b
Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA
c
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 125 Mechanical Engineering Building,111 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0111, USA
Received 6 June 2000; received in revised form 16 February 2001; accepted 13 March 2001
Abstract
Smoke±wire ¯ow visualization is used to investigate the behavior of a round jet issuing from a straight tube and impinging on aconvex surface. Video analysis of the impinging jet shows the initiation and growth of ring vortices in the jet shear layer and theirinteraction with the cylindrical surfaces. Eects of relative curvature, nozzle-to-surface distance, and Reynolds number on vortexinitiation, vortex separation from the surface and vortex breakup are described. Examples of vortex merging are discussed.
Ó
2001Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Jet impingement; Jet impingement cooling; Jet dynamics; Curved surface; Flow visualization
1. Introduction
Impinging jets have been known to provide large heattransfer rates on surfaces for many years, and severalcomprehensive reviews of their performance are avail-able [1±5]. Jet impingement cooling has applications inmany systems that bene®t from high heat transfer rates.Examples include the cooling of electronic equipmentand advanced gas turbine blades.A number of studies have reported on ¯ow visual-ization and heat transfer to jets impinging on ¯at sur-faces. However, many systems must be modeled ascurved surfaces. Yet, few works exist on the impinge-ment cooling of curved surfaces. For this reason, theeect of surface geometry on jet impingement coolingwarrants investigation. In the present study, a funda-mental understanding of the ¯uid ¯ow characteristics isof primary interest.Among the works available on jet impingement oncurved surfaces, Hrycak [6] studied the heat transferfrom concave hemispherical plates with Reynolds num-bers from 12,000 to 88,000 and small relative curvaturevalues (
=
 D
0
:
034
 ± 
0
:
1). He showed the ¯ow at thestagnation point is more turbulent, and the heat transferhigher, than for jets impinging on ¯at plates. Gau andChung [7] investigated the heat transfer from semicylin-drical concave and convex surfaces with slot jets atReynolds numbers from 6000 to 350,000 and slot widthto surface diameter ratios of 0.022±0.125. Although ¯owvisualization is presented, the detail is not sucient tointerpret the ¯ow pattern. Kornblum and Goldstein [8]investigated arrays of circular jets impinging on lowrelative curvature (
=
 D
0
:
0197
 ± 
0
:
0394) convex andconcave surfaces. Their ¯ow visualization indicates asubstantial recirculation of exhaust ¯ow from the con-cave surface into the main ¯ow. Lee et al. [9] studied theeects of relative curvature on local heat transfer forround jets with small relative curvature (
=
 D
0
:
034
 ± 
0
:
089) on a convex hemisphere. None of these papersprovides ¯ow visualization results in sucient detail tounderstand the primary ¯ow characteristics.A recent study by Popiel and Trass [10] gives insightinto the vortex structure development in both free andimpinging jets. The ¯ow visualization of toroidal vortexinitiation, vortex pairing and ¯uid entrainment pro-cesses are presented for both a free jet and a jet im-pinging on a ¯at surface. They found the most vortices
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 24 (2001) 169±175www.elsevier.nl/locate/etfs
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-612-625-5552;fax: +1-612-625-3434.
E-mail addresses:
amy.¯eischer@villanova.edu (A.S. Fleischer),rjg@me.umn.edu (R.J. Goldstein).
1
Tel.: +1-610-519-4996; fax: +1-610-519-73120894-1777/01/$ - see front matter
Ó
2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.PII: S 0 8 9 4 - 1 7 7 7 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 5 1 - 6
 
forming with low nozzle-to-plate distances. Impinge-ment on curved surfaces was not considered.The present study was undertaken to provide insightinto the eect of high relative curvature on impinging jet¯ow characteristics. A smoke±wire technique is used toobtain a cross-sectional view of the impinging jet. Testsare performed with jets issuing from straight tubes andimpinging on a convex surface with relative curvaturevalues from
=
 D
0
:
18
 ± 
0
:
38 and
=
1
 ± 
4. The ef-fects of Reynolds number, jet exit-to-surface spacingand relative curvature on vortex initiation, vortex sep-aration from the surface and vortex breakup are ex-amined.
2. Experimental apparatus
The impinging jets are created using the equipmentshown in Fig. 1. The equipment is same as that used in[11]. Air supplied by the building compressor is con-trolled by a pressure regulator upstream of an ori®ceplate. Flexible tubing allows variation of the jet±surfacespacing. The jets are formed from one of three alumi-num tubes with diameters of 47.2, 72.6 and 98.6 mm.The tubes connect to the ¯exible tubing to complete thepiping system. The tube length to diameter ratio (
 L
=
) is10 for all the tubes; however, honeycomb and meshscreens inserted in the tube entrance to smooth the ¯owshorten the eective length of the tube. A thermocouplein the tube, approximately 100 mm from the jet exit,measures the jet air temperature. Contoured nozzles arenot used and the jets are formed directly from the exit of the pipe. The round jets impinge on a convex semicyl-inder made of PVC pipe with an inner diameter of 25.2mm and a thickness of 4.76 mm.A smoke±wire technique is used to visualize the ¯owstructure in the jets. The smoke±wire technique allowsthe visualization of a ¯uid stream without disruption of the ¯ow. Flow disruption does not occur because thediameter of the wire is small enough that the ¯uid re-covers its structure shortly after ¯owing past it. The 0.1mm diameter wire is placed across the jet 1 mm down-stream from the tube exit. The wire was coated with oilprior to each run. Small, evenly spaced droplets of theoil form along the length of the wire. The wire is con-nected to a 10 A power supply. When the power supplyis turned on, Joule heating causes the wire to becomehot enough to produce smoke from the oil. The resul-tant smoke is carried by the jet ¯ow allowing a cross-sectional view of the jet. The resultant patterns are il-luminated and recorded using a Panasonic WV-BD400CCTV camera with a shutter speed of 1/10,000 s at 30frames/s. The Panasonic WV-BD400 CCTV camera ismounted on a tripod 1.5±2 m away from the jet.Videotaping the ¯ow is challenging due to the re-quired precision in the adjustment of the shutter speed,lighting and zoom. The correct selection of lighting wasthe biggest challenge. The ®nal system utilized has three1000 W halogen bulbs. Initially, a high-speed strobelight synchronized to the camera was considered. Astrobe allows stop motion action of even the fastest¯ows due to the illumination time of 1/100,000 of asecond. However, a strobe that can synchronize to avideo signal without an external trigger could not belocated. Most strobes use an external voltage or currenttrigger to synchronize to the video, but our camera didnot have this trigger. For this reason, a constant lightsource was selected.The constant light source eliminates the need forsynchronization, but creates a new set of challenges. The
Nomenclature
D
surface diameter (256.8 mm)
jet tube diameter (mm)
jet-to-surface distance (mm)
L
jet tube length (mm)
Re
Reynolds number (based on
)
 X 
b
vortex breakup location
 X 
i
vortex initiation distance
h
s
vortex separation angle
s
vortex period
De®nitions
 X 
b
vortex breakup location: location where thecore of the vortex begins to exhibit instability
 X 
i
vortex initiation distance: location from the jetexit of the initial instability
s
vortex period: time lapse for a vortex to passbetween two given points in space
h
s
vortex separation angle: location where the¯uid ¯ow separates from the curved surface
Fig. 1. Experimental apparatus.170
A.S. Fleischer et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 24 (2001) 169±175
 
brightness of the lighting is of paramount importance.Initially, a 100 W halogen bulb was used to illuminatethe ¯ow. This was insucient because the light acted asa ¯ood light rather than a spotlight. Any excess light inthe video ®eld caused overexposure and re¯ections.A 1,000,000-candlepower spotlight and two 750,000-candlepower spotlights could provide a sucientamount of light while focusing the light into a smallarea, eliminating the re¯ections and overexposure in thevideo. However, the spotlights needed to be close to the jet, overheating the jet stream and curved surface.In the ®nal design, three 1000 W halogen studiolights, manufactured by Arrilite of West Germany, arefocused as spotlights on the jet. They are bright enoughto allow the placement of the lights far enough from the jet and the surface to minimize heating eects. Blacknon-re¯ecting cloth is used as a shroud on all re¯ectingsurfaces.
3. Data reduction
The video is digitized using a Silicon Graphics O2computer, a JVC BR-S11U VCR, JVC BR-S800U andBR-S500U editing recorders, a JVC RM-G800U editingcontroller and a JVC KM-F250 frame synchronizer.The video is recorded at 30 frames/s. This means that60 ®elds/s are recorded, where a ®eld is one-half of theinformation contained in a frame. The video camerascans the top half of the picture in one ®eld and thebottom half in another ®eld. Because of the high jetvelocities, each ®eld recorded the jet structure at aslightly dierent point in time. When digitized, this re-sulted in motion blur. The blur is eliminated by digitallyrecording a slow motion, freeze-frame sequence of eachvideo run. The digitization process allows the enhance-ment of the video through brightness, contrast, and gainadjustment.The main sources of error in the data are from theaccuracy of scaling the locations o the digitized videoand from the repeatability of the test runs. Through useof the digital tools, the scaling is accurate to
Æ
5%. Therepeatability of the test runs is the overriding errorsource, with repeatability between test runs of 
Æ
20%.Thus, the locations are presented as a range, instead of an absolute value.
4. Flow visualization results
In this experiment, jet impingement on a cylindricalconvex surface is extensively studied. The eects of Reynolds number and jet-to-surface spacing (
 H 
=
) andrelative curvature (
=
 D
) on vortex initiation distance,period, vortex separation from the surface and vortexbreakup location are examined. A distinct in¯uence isseen for each of these parameters, and will individuallybe discussed in detail.Vortex initiation distance (
 X 
i
) is de®ned as the dis-tance from the jet exit that the instability that causesvortex formation is ®rst observed. Vortex period (
s
) isthe time lapse for a vortex to pass between two givenpoints in space. Vortex breakup location (
 X 
b
) is the lo-cation where the core of the vortex begins to exhibitinstability, rather than coherent vortex motion. Vortexmerging occurs when one vortex overtakes the vortex infront of it and the two vortices merge into one.
4.1. Vortex initiation distance and period 
Vortex initiation distance is identi®ed by locating theinitial instability in the laminar shear layer. This insta-bility wave grows and eventually rolls up into a vortexentraining ambient air [10]. Thus,
i
can be found bylocating the occurrence of the initial instability wave.This is done by reviewing the videotapes of each jet ¯ow.Several runs are recorded for each experimental ar-rangement. The location of the instability is scaled o the digitized video as in Figs. 2 and 3. The vortex period
Fig. 3. Vortex initiation location for a 98.6 mm jet with
Re
6000 and
 H 
=
4.Fig. 2. Vortex initiation location for a 98.6 mm jet with
Re
6000 and
 H 
=
3.
A.S. Fleischer et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 24 (2001) 169±175
171

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