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Waves? Particles? Particle waves!

Experiment: the double slit

2.1 Macroscopic particles: playing golf

2.2 Macroscopic waves: water waves

2.3 Microscopic waves: light

2.4 Microscopic particles: electrons

2.5 Summary

Towards a theory

3.1 Particles: classical mechanics revisited

3.1.1 Hamilton formalism

3.2 Waves: the classical linear chain

3.2.1 Equations of motion

3.2.2 ... and their solutions

3.3 Continuum limit: transition to a ﬁeld theory

3.4 Diﬀerential operators, wave packets, and dispersion rela-

3.5 Breaking translational symmetry

3.6 Introducing mass into the linear chain (Home study)

3.7 Measurements

3.8 Postulates of Quantum mechanics

3.9 Is Quantum theory a complete theory?

3.10 Planck constant

3.11 Wavy waves are chunky waves: second quantization

3.12 Summary

Quantum eﬀects

4.1 Quasi-one-dimensional problems in the real world

4.2 Time-independent Schrödinger equation

independent Schrödinger equation

4.3 Method of separation of variables

4.4 Free particles and spreading wave packets

4.4.1 Wave packets delocalize with time

4.4.2 Wick rotation

4.4.3 Galilei invariance (home study)

4.5 Particle in a box, quantized energies and zero-point motion

4.5.1 Time-dependent solutions for the particle in the box

4.6 Potential step and splitting of wave packets

4.6.1 Kinetic energy larger than the potential step

4.6.2 Construct the other partial solution using symmetry transformations

4.6.3 Kinetic energy smaller than the potential step

4.6.4 Logarithmic derivative

4.7 Barrier and tunnel eﬀect

4.8 Particle in a well and resonances

4.9 Summary

4.10 Exercises

Language of quantum mechanics

5.1 Kets and the linear space of states

5.1.1 Axioms

5.1.2 Bra’s and brackets

5.1.3 Some vocabulary

5.2 Operators

5.2.1 Axioms

5.2.2 Some vocabulary

5.3 Analogy between states and vectors

5.4 The power of the Dirac notation

5.5 Extended Hilbert space

5.6 Application: harmonic oscillator

5.6.1 Algebraic treatment of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator

5.6.2 Wave functions of the harmonic oscillator

5.6.3 Multidimensional harmonic oscillator

Representations

6.1 Unity operator

6.2 Representation of a state

6.3 Representation of an operator

6.4 Change of representations

6.5 From bra’s and ket’s to wave functions

6.5.1 Real-space representation

6.5.2 Momentum representation

6.5.3 Orthonormality condition of momentum eigenstates (Home study)

6.6 Application: Two-state system

6.6.1 Pauli Matrices

6.6.2 Excursion: The Fermionic harmonic oscillator (Home study)

Measurements

7.1 Expectation values

7.2 Certain measurements

7.2.1 Schwarz’ inequality

7.3 Eigenstates

7.4 Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation

HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY RELATION

7.5 Measurement process

7.6 Kopenhagen interpretation

EHRENFEST THEOREM

8.4 Particle conservation and probability current

8.5 Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction pictures

8.5.1 Schrödinger picture

8.5.2 Heisenberg picture

8.5.3 Interaction picture

Symmetry

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Some properties of unitary operators

9.1.2 Symmetry groups

9.2 Finite symmetry groups

9.3 Continuous symmetries

9.3.1 Shift operator

9.4 Exercises

9.4.1 Translation operator from canonical momentum

Speciﬁc Symmetries

10.1 Parity

10.2 n-fold rotation about an axis

10.3 Exchange of two particles

10.3.1 Fermions

10.3.2 Bosons

10.4 Continuous translations

10.5 Discrete translations, crystals and Bloch theorem

10.5.1 Real and reciprocal lattice: One-dimensional example

10.5.2 Real and reciprocal lattice in three dimensions

10.5.3 Bloch Theorem

10.5.4 Schrödinger equation in momentum representation

10.6 Some common Lattices

10.6.1 Cubic lattices

10.7 Exercises

10.7.1 Symmetrization of states

10.7.2 Dirac comb

Rotations, Angular Momentum and

11.1 Rotations

11.1.1 Derivation of the Angular momentum

11.1.2 Another derivation of the angular momentum (Home study)

11.2 Commutator Relations

11.3 Algebraic derivation of the eigenvalue spectrum

11.4 Eigenstates of angular momentum: spherical harmonics

11.5 Spin

11.6 Addition of angular momenta

11.7 Products of spherical harmonics

11.8 Exercises

12.1 Radial Schrödinger equation

12.2 The Hydrogen Atom

Approximation techniques

13.1 Perturbation theory

13.2 General principle of perturbation theory

13.3 Time-independent perturbation theory

13.3.1 Degenerate case

13.3.2 First order perturbation theory

FIRST ORDER PERTURBATION THEORY

13.3.3 Second order perturbation theory

13.4 Time-dependent perturbation theory

13.4.1 Transition probabilities

13.5 Variational or Rayleigh-Ritz principle

13.6 WKB-Approximation

13.6.1 Classical turning points

13.7 Numerical integration of one-dimensional problems

13.7.1 Stability

13.7.2 Natural boundary conditions

13.7.3 Radial wave functions for atoms

13.8 Exercises

13.8.1 A model for optical absorption

13.8.2 Gamow’s theory of alpha decay

13.8.3 Transmission coeﬃcient of a tunneling barrier

13.8.4 Fowler-Nordheim tunneling

Relativistic particles

14.1 A brief review of theory of relativity

14.2 Relativistic Electrons

14.3 Electron in the electromagnetic ﬁeld

14.4 Down-folding the positron component

14.5 The non-relativistic limit: Pauli equation

14.6 Relativistic corrections

14.6.1 Spin-Orbit coupling

14.6.2 Darwin term

14.6.3 Mass-velocity term

Many Particles

15.1 Bosons

15.1.1 Quantum mechanics as classical wave theory

15.1.2 Second quantization

15.1.3 Coordinate representation

15.2 Fermions

15.3 Final remarks

Appendix

Galilei invariance

B.1 Probability distribution

C.1 E > V , the barrier can be classically surmounted

C.2 Tunneling eﬀect E < V

D.1 Square well E > 0

D.2 Square well E < 0

Spherical harmonics

F.1 Spherical harmonics addition theorem

F.2 Unsöld’s Theorem

F.3 Condon-Shortley phase

Random Phase approximation

G.1 Repeated random phase approximation

G.2 Transition matrix element

G.3 Rate equation

G.4 Oﬀ-diagonal elements

Positrons

J.1 The action of quantum electrodynamics

ACTION OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS

Gauss’ theorem

Fourier transform

N.1 General transformations

N.2 Fourier transform in an ﬁnite interval

N.3 Fourier transform on an inﬁnite interval

N.4 Table of Fourier transforms

N.5 Dirac’s δ-function

Pauli Matrices

Q.3.3 Permutation of a product

Q.3.4 1

Special Functions

R.1 Bessel and Hankel functions

R.2 Hermite Polynomials

R.3 Legendre Polynomials

R.4 Laguerre Polynomials

Principle of least action for ﬁelds

ℓ-degeneracy of the hydrogen atom

T.1 Laplace-Runge-Lenz Vector

T.1.1 Commutator relations of Runge-Lenz vector and angular momentum

T.1.2 Rescale to obtain a closed algebra

T.2 SO(4) symmetry

T.3 ℓ-Degeneracy of the hydrogen atom

T.4 Derivation of commutator relations used in this chapter

T.4.1 Calculation of ˆ

Greek Alphabet

Philosophy of the ΦSX Series

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