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Table Of Contents

Waves? Particles? Particle waves!
Experiment: the double slit
2.1 Macroscopic particles: playing golf
2.2 Macroscopic waves: water waves
2.3 Microscopic waves: light
2.4 Microscopic particles: electrons
2.5 Summary
Towards a theory
3.1 Particles: classical mechanics revisited
3.1.1 Hamilton formalism
3.2 Waves: the classical linear chain
3.2.1 Equations of motion
3.2.2 ... and their solutions
3.3 Continuum limit: transition to a field theory
3.4 Differential operators, wave packets, and dispersion rela-
3.5 Breaking translational symmetry
3.6 Introducing mass into the linear chain (Home study)
3.7 Measurements
3.8 Postulates of Quantum mechanics
3.9 Is Quantum theory a complete theory?
3.10 Planck constant
3.11 Wavy waves are chunky waves: second quantization
3.12 Summary
Quantum effects
4.1 Quasi-one-dimensional problems in the real world
4.2 Time-independent Schrödinger equation
independent Schrödinger equation
4.3 Method of separation of variables
4.4 Free particles and spreading wave packets
4.4.1 Wave packets delocalize with time
4.4.2 Wick rotation
4.4.3 Galilei invariance (home study)
4.5 Particle in a box, quantized energies and zero-point motion
4.5.1 Time-dependent solutions for the particle in the box
4.6 Potential step and splitting of wave packets
4.6.1 Kinetic energy larger than the potential step
4.6.2 Construct the other partial solution using symmetry transformations
4.6.3 Kinetic energy smaller than the potential step
4.6.4 Logarithmic derivative
4.7 Barrier and tunnel effect
4.8 Particle in a well and resonances
4.9 Summary
4.10 Exercises
Language of quantum mechanics
5.1 Kets and the linear space of states
5.1.1 Axioms
5.1.2 Bra’s and brackets
5.1.3 Some vocabulary
5.2 Operators
5.2.1 Axioms
5.2.2 Some vocabulary
5.3 Analogy between states and vectors
5.4 The power of the Dirac notation
5.5 Extended Hilbert space
5.6 Application: harmonic oscillator
5.6.1 Algebraic treatment of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator
5.6.2 Wave functions of the harmonic oscillator
5.6.3 Multidimensional harmonic oscillator
Representations
6.1 Unity operator
6.2 Representation of a state
6.3 Representation of an operator
6.4 Change of representations
6.5 From bra’s and ket’s to wave functions
6.5.1 Real-space representation
6.5.2 Momentum representation
6.5.3 Orthonormality condition of momentum eigenstates (Home study)
6.6 Application: Two-state system
6.6.1 Pauli Matrices
6.6.2 Excursion: The Fermionic harmonic oscillator (Home study)
Measurements
7.1 Expectation values
7.2 Certain measurements
7.2.1 Schwarz’ inequality
7.3 Eigenstates
7.4 Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation
HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY RELATION
7.5 Measurement process
7.6 Kopenhagen interpretation
EHRENFEST THEOREM
8.4 Particle conservation and probability current
8.5 Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction pictures
8.5.1 Schrödinger picture
8.5.2 Heisenberg picture
8.5.3 Interaction picture
Symmetry
9.1 Introduction
9.1.1 Some properties of unitary operators
9.1.2 Symmetry groups
9.2 Finite symmetry groups
9.3 Continuous symmetries
9.3.1 Shift operator
9.4 Exercises
9.4.1 Translation operator from canonical momentum
Specific Symmetries
10.1 Parity
10.2 n-fold rotation about an axis
10.3 Exchange of two particles
10.3.1 Fermions
10.3.2 Bosons
10.4 Continuous translations
10.5 Discrete translations, crystals and Bloch theorem
10.5.1 Real and reciprocal lattice: One-dimensional example
10.5.2 Real and reciprocal lattice in three dimensions
10.5.3 Bloch Theorem
10.5.4 Schrödinger equation in momentum representation
10.6 Some common Lattices
10.6.1 Cubic lattices
10.7 Exercises
10.7.1 Symmetrization of states
10.7.2 Dirac comb
Rotations, Angular Momentum and
11.1 Rotations
11.1.1 Derivation of the Angular momentum
11.1.2 Another derivation of the angular momentum (Home study)
11.2 Commutator Relations
11.3 Algebraic derivation of the eigenvalue spectrum
11.4 Eigenstates of angular momentum: spherical harmonics
11.5 Spin
11.6 Addition of angular momenta
11.7 Products of spherical harmonics
11.8 Exercises
12.1 Radial Schrödinger equation
12.2 The Hydrogen Atom
Approximation techniques
13.1 Perturbation theory
13.2 General principle of perturbation theory
13.3 Time-independent perturbation theory
13.3.1 Degenerate case
13.3.2 First order perturbation theory
FIRST ORDER PERTURBATION THEORY
13.3.3 Second order perturbation theory
13.4 Time-dependent perturbation theory
13.4.1 Transition probabilities
13.5 Variational or Rayleigh-Ritz principle
13.6 WKB-Approximation
13.6.1 Classical turning points
13.7 Numerical integration of one-dimensional problems
13.7.1 Stability
13.7.2 Natural boundary conditions
13.7.3 Radial wave functions for atoms
13.8 Exercises
13.8.1 A model for optical absorption
13.8.2 Gamow’s theory of alpha decay
13.8.3 Transmission coefficient of a tunneling barrier
13.8.4 Fowler-Nordheim tunneling
Relativistic particles
14.1 A brief review of theory of relativity
14.2 Relativistic Electrons
14.3 Electron in the electromagnetic field
14.4 Down-folding the positron component
14.5 The non-relativistic limit: Pauli equation
14.6 Relativistic corrections
14.6.1 Spin-Orbit coupling
14.6.2 Darwin term
14.6.3 Mass-velocity term
Many Particles
15.1 Bosons
15.1.1 Quantum mechanics as classical wave theory
15.1.2 Second quantization
15.1.3 Coordinate representation
15.2 Fermions
15.3 Final remarks
Appendix
Galilei invariance
B.1 Probability distribution
C.1 E > V , the barrier can be classically surmounted
C.2 Tunneling effect E < V
D.1 Square well E > 0
D.2 Square well E < 0
Spherical harmonics
F.1 Spherical harmonics addition theorem
F.2 Unsöld’s Theorem
F.3 Condon-Shortley phase
Random Phase approximation
G.1 Repeated random phase approximation
G.2 Transition matrix element
G.3 Rate equation
G.4 Off-diagonal elements
Positrons
J.1 The action of quantum electrodynamics
ACTION OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS
Gauss’ theorem
Fourier transform
N.1 General transformations
N.2 Fourier transform in an finite interval
N.3 Fourier transform on an infinite interval
N.4 Table of Fourier transforms
N.5 Dirac’s δ-function
Pauli Matrices
Q.3.3 Permutation of a product
Q.3.4 1
Special Functions
R.1 Bessel and Hankel functions
R.2 Hermite Polynomials
R.3 Legendre Polynomials
R.4 Laguerre Polynomials
Principle of least action for fields
ℓ-degeneracy of the hydrogen atom
T.1 Laplace-Runge-Lenz Vector
T.1.1 Commutator relations of Runge-Lenz vector and angular momentum
T.1.2 Rescale to obtain a closed algebra
T.2 SO(4) symmetry
T.3 ℓ-Degeneracy of the hydrogen atom
T.4 Derivation of commutator relations used in this chapter
T.4.1 Calculation of ˆ
Greek Alphabet
Philosophy of the ΦSX Series
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Published by: Amin Tayebi on May 25, 2012
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