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Duddeck & Erdmann - 1982

Duddeck & Erdmann - 1982

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Published by: Chaithanyam Kyasnoori on May 26, 2012
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Structuraldesignmodelsfortunnels
JI.
Duddeck
J.
Erdmann!JniversitatBraunschweig,Germanysynopsis
I
heITAworkinggrouponstructuraldesignmodelsforwnnelling
will
publishin1982therepliestoaquestionnaireinsynopsisform.Incontinuationofthatworktheresultsofaninvestigationintothemostcommondesignmodelsforsoftgroundtunnelsaregivenbywayofacomparativereviewofprogresstodateinthisfield.Themaindifferencesintheassumptionswithregardtothedifferentmodelsarestated.Diagramsforthehoopforces,hendingmomentsandradialdisplacementsillustratethedifferencesinthedesignvaluesevaluatedforthreedifferentmodels-thecontinuummodel,theMuirWooddesignmodelandthebeddedbeammodelwithoutbeddingatthecrownregion.Acomparisonwithfreeparametersnecessitatesanalyticalsolutions,soonlycircularcross-sectionsareinvestigated.Nevertheless,theresultsoftheinvestigationmayalsobevalidfornon-circularcross-sectionsandmorerefinednumericalanalyses.Thereisatrendtowardsagreementonthebasicassumptionsandonthedesignmodelinregardtobothshallowanddeeptunnels.Intheperiodofplanningandtenderingforatunnelstructuretheengineerhastorelyapartfromhisexperience-onastructuralmodel,fromwhichhemayderivecriteriatoestablishwhetherthedesignissuitable,safeandeconomical.OneoftheworkinggroupsoftheInternationalTunnellingAssociation(ITA)chosethetask
geologysiteinvestigationlineandbrientationprobingand_groundcharacteristics:
I
prim.stress,strength,
rockmechanics
fissures,anisotropy,etc.
experienceestimationexcavationmethodstructuralelements
I
-Ul
~I
o.j
safetyconcept_~failurehypothesesI
I
mechanicalmodel..verification"oftunneldesigninsitumonitoring:deformationsstop?
1\iO"C;l-----.....
~
....._..._
I
ortheactualstateonly,__
"snfe"
unknownsafetymargin
translationofrealityintodesignmodelmarkedby
I
Fig.1Designprocedurefortunnelling(structuraldesignmodelincludessectionsmarked
with
verticalbar)
ofgatheringinformationondesignmodelsfortunnellingthatarecurrentlyapplied.Aquestionnairesoughtdataonsiteinvestigations,assumedloads,staticsystems,safetyconcepts,designcriteriaand
in-situ
monitoringforfourdifferenttypesoftunnelstructure.Therepliestothequestionnairewillbepublishedin1982.
1
Fromthisfirststepinformationisdisseminatedonaninternationallevelastothekindsofstructuralmodelsthatareavailableandapplied.Aswouldbeexpected,therepliesreflectnationaldevelopmentsintheartoftunnelling,traditionsandexperience.Thepresentpaperispartofasecondstepintendedtocomparethedesignmodels,analysingwhyandinwhatwaystheydifferfromoneanother.Thescopeofthecomparisonisatpresentrestrictedasitdealsonlywithtunnellingmodelsforsoftgroundandthatpartofthefullstructuralmodel(Fig.1)fromwhichcriteriaaredrawnforthedesignofthetunnellining.Thereasonforthefirstrestrictionis,simply,thatforsoftgroundinternationallyappliedmodelsarefairlywelldefinedandmoredevelopedthanthosefortunnelsinhardrock.Withregardtothesecondrestriction,theauthorsarewellawarethatsafetunnellinginvolvesmuchmorethantheselectionofasuitablemechanicalmodel,butalltheotherpartsofthecompletestructuralmodeldefytranslationintoobjectiveanalysisandmathematicallanguage.Papersthatappliedamuchbroaderapproachtoallthecomplexaspectsoftunnelling,includingdifferentdesignmodels,havebeenpresented.
2,3
Inmanyinstancesthestress-strain-deformationproblemofatunnellingprocedurecanbesolvedonlybytheapplicationofanumericalanalysis,e.g.thefinite-elementmethod.Thegeometryoftheopeningandthestratigraphiclayersofthegroundareinmostcasesnotsimple.Non-linearmaterialbehaviourisinvolved.Theconsecutivephasesoftheprocessofdrivingandsupportareimportantforthefinalstressesinthelinings.Comparisonoftheresultsonthebasisofnumericalsolutionsis,however,verydifficultanddoesnotyieldanyinsightintodependenceonsoilanddesignparameters.Theanalysisgivenhereis,therefore,additionallyrestrictedtosolutionsforcircularcross-sections.Sincethemainobjectiveisdirectedtowardsthebasicassumptionsofthemodelstheconclusionsarealsomoregenerallyvalidfornon-circularcross-sectionsandfornumericalanalyses.Thefollowingquestionsaretobeansweredforthedifferentdesignmodelsfortunnelsinsoftground:Whichbasicassumptionsareappliedtoderiveamodel?Whicharegenerallyagreed?Whicharedifferent?Towhatextentarethedesigncriteria(thrust,bendingmoments,displacements)a.ffectedbythedifferentassumptions?
Basicassumptionsforstructuraldesignmodelsfortunnelsinsoftground
Softgroundrequiresimmediatesupportas,forexample,indrivingashield-excavatedtunnelorbyapplyingshotcretewiththeshort-timeclosureofthefullring.Therefore,generalagreementexistsonthefollowingbasicassumptions,
(1)
Forthedesignmodeloftheliningsitmaybesufficienttoconsideronlyacross-sectionontheassumptionofplanestrainconditionsfortheliningandtheground.(2)Theactivesoilpressuresontheliningaretakenasequaltotheprimarystressesintheundisturbedgroundbecausethegroundissoft.Hence,itisassumedthatforthefinalstage(yearsafterconstruction)thegroundwilleventuallyreturntothesameconditionasbeforethetunnelling,exceptforthepassivestressesduetothedeflectionofthelining.Changinggroundwaterlevels,traffic83
 
'.
l~
T
H
Fig.2Planestraincontinuummodel
,~
eT
H
G
y
t
-D-G
t
G
y
=
'Y
H
G
h
=
KoGy
Kr
=
canst.
Fig.3Beddedringmodel;crownwithoutbedding'?
vibration,etc.,maybethecauseofthis.Forfuturemonitoringresultsmayoffertheopportunitytoascertain
A
whichcases(e.g.type"ofsoilanddepthoftunnel)this~ssumptionistooconservative.Differentintermediatesituationsinfluencedbythedrivingprocedureandtheplacingofthesupportingelementsareneglected.(3)Betweentheliningandthegroundthereexistsabondeitherforradialandtangentialdeformationsorforradialdeformationsonly.Withthisassumptionthemodelcomplieswiththeequilibriumconditionsaswellaswiththecompatibilityconditionsattheboundarybetweentheliningandtheground.Thisisquitedifferentfromtheconceptofintroducingaliningresistance,expressedintermsofaforce,proposedbytheAustrianschool.Hereonlyequilibriumconditionsareconsidered.(4)Becauseofthelining-groundrelationshipdeformationoftheliningresultsinreactionstressesintheground.Acontinuummodelincludesthiseffectautomatically.Forabeammodelbeddingspringswithappropriatebeddingmodulihavetobeapplied.Thebondateveryplacearoundthelininggivesrisetoareductioninthe'loading'groundpressurewheretheliningdeflectsinwards.Ifsucha'loadreduction'werenotallowed,bedding(andtheequivalentofthisforthecontinuummodel)hastobeneglectedinthosepartsofthecross-sectionwhereinwarddeformationoccurs,i.e.principallyatthecrown(seeFigs.3and5).(5)Thematerialbehaviourofgroundandliningisgenerallyassumedasbeingelastic.Morerefinedtheoriesmayalsoincludenon-linearandplasticmateriallaws,which,however,inmostcasesrequiretheapplicationofnumericalmethods(e.g.FEM).Formoredetaileddiscussionsoftheassumptionsthepapersgiveninthelistofreferencesshouldbestudied.
Contributionstodevelopmentofdesignmodelsfortunnelswithcircularcross-sections
Thefollowingbriefreportonprogresstodateisinevitablyincomplete,anumberofimportantcontributionshavingbeenomitted.Until1960mosttunnelsweredesigned,ifbyanalysisandnotmerelybyexperiencealone,bymethodsthatarbitrarilyassumed'loads'actingonthelining.Evenallowanceforbeddingforceswastakenasgivenforces.Hence,compatibilityconditionsbetweengroundandliningwerenotconsidered.Schmidsin1926seemstohavefirstanalysedanelasticcontinuumtotakeintoaccounttheinteractionbetweengroundandlining,buthisworkwasnotrecognizedbypracticalengineers,possiblybecauseheconsideredaratherthicklining.InVoellmy's(1937)doctoralthesis
6
athinnerliningisassumed,buttheomissionofthetangentialcomponentsoftheearth'spressureandthetangentialdisplacementsmeansthattheresultsobtaineddonotcomplywiththe
N
M
max
y
=
volumeweight
Fig.4Planestraincontinuummodelandcharacteristicdistributionofradialdisplacement,
u,
hoopforces,
N,
andbendingmoments,M84
 
Mu
y
=
volumeweight
Fig.5Beddedringmodelforshallowtunnelswithouttensionbeddingatcrown!"(distributionofradialdisplacement,
u,
groundreactionpressure,
0B,
hoopforces,
N,
andbendingmoments,
M)
equilibriumandcompatibilityconditionsofanelasticcontinuum.In1944Bu1l
7
introducedtheassumption,whichisvalidforshallowtunnelswithlimitedoverburden,thattensionbeddinginthecrownregionshouldbeneglected.Thebeddedbeamcalculationisverytediousbecauseoftheproposedevaluationandsuperpositionofinfluencefunctionsfor16singleforcesalongthering.Moreover,overallequilibriumintheverticaldirectionisgainedonlybyadownwardrigid-bodydisplacement.Engelbreth''inNorwayhadin1957alreadyderivedaclosedformulaforstressanddeformationoftheliningdeducedfromacontinuummodel(Fig.2).In1961Morgan''assumed
apriori
thatthecircularliningdeformsintoanellipticalmode.Thus,tangentialstressesandthecorrespondingdeformationsareomitted.Fromthisintuitiveapproachsomepartsofthefullsolutionforthecontinuummodelarelost.Theresultingbendingmomentsaretheoreticallytoosmall.In1964Schulzeand
Duddeck'"
publishedcompleteandclosedsolutionsforthemodel(Fig.3)intendedforapplicationforshallowtunnelswithlimitedoverburden.Hence,beddingatthecrownisomittedwheretensionspringsmaycauseloadreductions.Resultsweregivenforthedirectdesignindiagramsforbendingmoments,hoopforcesandradialdisplacementsforthosethreepointsoftheliningatwhichvaluesofarelativemaximumoccur.Theradialbeddingmodulus,
K
r,
isstillafreeparameter,andthetangentialstressesmaybeincludedinoromittedfromtheloadparameters.In1966Windels
ll
extendedtheapproachofSchulzeandDuddeck
to
takeintoaccountsecond-ordereffects(geometricalnon-linearity)andanapproximationforpre-deformationoftheliningowingtotheerectionprocedure,e.g.oftubbingrings.Thus,bucklinginstabilityisalsocoveredforthemodelshowninFig.3.Furtherinvestigationsofgeometricalandphysicalnon-lineareffects(e.g.plastichinges)havebeenpublishedbyGermanworkers(notreferredtohere).In1967Windels
12
publishedanextensiveandcompletetreatiseonthecirculartunnelinanelasticcontinuum(Fig.2),geometricalnon-linearityandpre-deformationalsobeingcovered.Bendingmoments,hoopforcesandradialdeflectionsweregivenindiagramsforthecos2
ifJ
stressmodeeitherwithfullbondingorexcludingtangentialstresses.Theratioofrelativestiffnessesofgroundandliningistakenasafreeparameter.Peck
13
in1969proposedasemi-empiricalapproachthat,inessence,isnotverydifferentfromthemodelgiveninFig.3andthesolutionspresentedin1964,10togetherwiththeeffectsofcompressibilitystiffnessandflexibilitystiffness.Tangentialgroundstresseswerenottakenintoconsideration.MuirWood
14
in1975gaveacorrectedversionofMorgan's''moreintuitiveapproach',againassuminganellipticaldeformationmode.Thetangentialgroundstressesareincluded,butthatpartoftheradialdeformationwhichisduetothetangentialstressesisomitted(referencetopreviouswork
8,12
wouldhaveenabledthecorrectmodel(Fig.2)tohavebeenreached).Makingallowancesforsomepre-decompressionofthegroundaroundtheopeningbeforetheliningisplaced,MuirWoodproposedtotakeonly50%(ortwo-thirds,asPanethadsuggestedin1973)oftheinitialgroundstressesintoconsideration.Themomentsmaybereducedevenmorebyreducingtheliningstiffnessbyanamountequivalenttotheeffectoflessrigidhinges(resultsfromthismethodarecomparedwithotherdesignmethodslater-seeFigs.12and15).In1976Curtis
lS
supplementedMuirWood'sforrnulae'"bytheinclusionofradialdeformationduetotangentialstress.Inaddition,somevaluableextensionsinregardtotime-dependentbehaviour(creep)weregiveninsimpleexpressionsforthechangeofstiffnessratiowithtime.ThemodelproposedisthatofFig.2.EinsteinandSchwartz'Pproposed,afterextensivestudyoftheavailablemethodsforthedesignofdeeptunnels,asimplifiedanalysisthatisderivedfromthecontinuummodel(Fig.2)andyieldspracticallythesameresultsasthoseofEngelbreth''andWindels
12
(seelater).Ahrensandco-workers!"investigatedbothmodelsofFigs.2and3.Appropriatebeddingmoduliwerederivedforthebeammodel(Fig.3,butwithfullbeddingalsoatthecrown)thatyieldthesamesolutionsasthoseforthecontinuummodelofFig.2.Tangentialbeddinghastobeintroduced.Differenceseitherforfullbondorfortangentialsliparegiven.TheresultsareincorporatedintotheGermanrecommendations.fTosummarizeprogressitmaybestatedthatthemethodsavailablearesimpleenough(evenwithdesigngraphs)forpracticalapplication,thatthedesignengineermaychooseeitherthemodelgiveninFig.2(formoderatelydeeptunnels)orthatgiveninFig.3(forshallowtunnelswithoutreductionofgroundpressureatthecrown),thatthefree-parametersalsoallowconsiderationofareducedinitialgroundstress(say,50%oreven30%)fordeeptunnelsinstifferground,takingintoaccountsomedecompressionat
85

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