3research firms, and advertising agencies are constantly devising new categories, whichwill best help target possible consumers of their clients products.One example of a life style classification model, is that developed by the advertisingagency, Young & Rubican, called Cross Cultural Consumer Characterization (4Cs forshort). This classification model is presented in the table belowThe 4CsResignedRigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented to the past and toResigned roles. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarity and economy. (Older)StrugglerAlienated, Struggler, disorganised - with few resources apart fromphysical/mechanical skills (e.g. car repair). Heavy consumers of alcohol, junkfood and lotteries, also trainers. Brand choice involves impact and sensation.MainstreamerDomestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual. Part of themass, favouring big and well-known value for money 'family' brands. Almostinvariably the largest 4Cs group.AspirerMaterialistic, acquisitive, affiliative (like to give their allegiance to), image,appearance, charisma, persona and fashion. Attractive packaging moreimportant than quality of contents. (Younger, clerical/sales type occupation)SucceederStrong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation ... support statusquo, stability. Brand choice based on reward, prestige - the very best . Alsoattracted to 'caring' and protective brands ... stress relief. (Top management)ExplorerEnergy - autonomy, experience, challenge, new frontiers. Brand choicehighlights difference, sensation, adventure, indulgence and instant effect - thefirst to try new brands. (Younger - student)ReformerFreedom from restriction, personal growth, social awareness, value for time,independent judgement, tolerance of complexity, anti-materialistic butintolerant of bad taste. Curious and enquiring, support growth of new productcategories. Select brands for intrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity, smallis beautiful.(Higher Education)Behavioural SegmentationBehavioural segmentation is based on actual customer behaviour toward products. Somebehavioural variables that are looked at in the audience are:
Benefits they seek
User status: potential, first-time, regular, etc.
Readiness to buy/consume
Occasions: holidays and events that stimulate purchases/consumptionBehavioural segmentation has the advantage of using variables that are closely related tothe product itself. It is a fairly direct starting point for market segmentation.