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Lathe Shop Lab Manual

Lathe Shop Lab Manual

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Published by Upen Shenoy
lathe w/s for mech guys
lathe w/s for mech guys

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Published by: Upen Shenoy on May 26, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/23/2014

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AMRITA VISHWA VIDYAPEETHAM
 
A
MRITA
S
CHOOL OF
E
NGINEERING
,
 
B
ANGALORE
Lathe Shop and SpecialMachines Lab
DEPARTMENT
 
OF
 
MECHANICAL 
 
ENGINEERING
 
GENERAL SHOP SAFETY
All tools are dangerous if used improperly or carelessly. Working safely is the first thing the user oroperator should learn because the safe way is the correct way. A person learning to operate machine toolsmust first learn the safety regulations and precautions for each tool or machine. Most accidents are causedby not following prescribed procedures. Develop safe work habits rather than suffer the consequences of an accident. Most of the safety practices mentioned in this section are general in nature. Safetyprecautions for specific tools and machines are described in detail in the chapters along with thedescription of the equipment. Study these carefully and be on the alert to apply them.
EYE PROTECTION
Using eye protection in the machine shop is the most important safety rule of all. Metal chips andshavings can fly at great speeds and distances and cause serious eye injury. Safety glasses must be wornwhen working with hand-cutting tools, since most hand-cutting tools are made of hardened steel and canbreak or shatter when used improperly. Safety goggles should be worn over prescription glasses.
HAZARDOUS NOISE PROTECTION
Noise hazards are very common in the machine shop. High intensity noise can cause permanent loss of hearing. Although noise hazards cannot always be eliminated, hearing loss is avoidable with ear muffs,ear plugs, or both.
FOOT PROTECTION
The floor in a machine shop is often covered with razor-sharp metal chips, and heavy stock may bedropped on the feet. Therefore, safety shoes or a solid leather shoe must be worn at all times.
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Exposure to electrical hazard will be minimal unless the operator becomes involved with machine repair.The machine operator is mostly concerned with the on and off switch on the machine tool. However, if adjustments or repairs must be made, the power source should be disconnected. If the machine tool iswired permanently, the circuit breaker should be switched off and tagged with an appropriate warningstatement. Most often the power source will not be disconnected for routine adjustment such as changingmachine speeds. However, if a speed change involves a belt change, make sure that no other person is
likely to turn on the machine while the operator’s hands are in contact with belts and pulleys.
 
SAFETY RULES FOR MACHINE TOOLS
Since different cutting tools and machining procedures are used on various machine tools, the safetyprecautions for each may vary. The following are general safety rules for any machine tool:
 
Gears, pulleys, belts, couplings, ends of shafts having keyways, and other revolving orreciprocating parts should be guarded to a height of 6 feet above the floor.
 
The guards should be removed only for repairing or adjusting the machine and must be replacedbefore operating it. Safety setscrews should be used in collars and on all revolving orreciprocating members of the machine tool or its equipment.
 
Do not operate any machine tool without proper lighting.
 
Never attempt to operate any machine tool until you fully understand how it works and know howto stop it quickly.
 
 
Never wear loose or torn clothing and secure long hair, since these items can become caught inrevolving machine parts. Ties should be removed and shirt sleeves should be rolled up above theelbow.
 
Gloves should never be worn when operating machinery except when absolutely necessary.Always stop the machine before cleaning it or taking measurements of the workpiece.
 
Do not lubricate a machine while it is in motion. Injury to the operator and damage to the machinemay result from this practice.
 
Never remove metal chips, turnings, or shavings with your hands; they may cause a serious cut. If the shavings are long, stop the machine and break them with pliers or a bent rod, and then brushchips off the machine. Remove cast-iron chips, which break into small pieces, with a brush. Neverwipe away chips when the machine is operating.
 
Always wear safety glasses or goggles while operating machine tools. Also, wear respiratoryprotection if operation creates hazardous dust. All persons in the area where power tools are beingoperated should also wear safety eye protection and respirators as needed.
 
Know where fire extinguishers are located in the shop area and how to use them. Never wear jewelry while working around machine tools. Rings, watches, or bracelets maybe caught in arevolving part which could result in the hand being pulled into the machine.
 
Avoid horseplay. Tools are very sharp and machines are made of hard steel. An accidental slip orfall may cause a serious injury. Never use compressed air without a safety nozzle to cleanmachines or clothing. It will blow sharp, dangerous metal chips a long distance.
 
Keep the floor around machines free of tools, stock, oil, grease, and metal chips. Tripping overmetal on the floor, especially round bars, can cause dangerous falls. Wipe up all oil, grease, andcutting fluid spills on the floor as soon as possible to prevent a fall. Metal chips are very sharp andcan easily become embedded in the soles of shoes, making them very slippery, especially whenwalking on a concrete floor.
 
Never place tools or other materials on the machine table. Cluttering up a machine with tools ormaterials creates unsafe working conditions. Always use a rag when handling sharp cutters suchas milling cutters and end mills.
 
Do not expose power tools to rain or use in damp or wet Remove adjusting keys and wrenches.Form a habit of locations. Checking to see that keys and wrenches are removed from tools beforeturning them on.
 
Always secure the workpiece. Use clamps or a vise. It is safer than using your hands, and it freesboth hands to Do not operate any machine tool while under the operate the tool influence of drugs,alcohol, or any medication that could cause drowsiness. Do not abuse electrical cords.
 
Never carry a tool by its cord or yank it to disconnect it from a receptacle. KeepElectrical cords away from heat, oil, and sharp edges. Have damaged or worn power cords andstrain relievers repaired or replaced immediately.

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