not the only result, sanctions faced sever criticism on humanitarian grounds. The the U.N. Foodand Agricultural Organization (FAO) published a study in the British medical journal Lancetestimating that as many as 576,000 children had died as a result of the sanctions.
The moralimplications of sanctions and economic warfare cannot be ignored in a globalized world, callousor Machiavellian as it may sound, it is the responsibility of the intelligence agencies to neutralizethis threat.
The ultimate purpose of the intelligence services lie in the total understanding of targeted states.In another words “...economic warfare in time of war and cold economic warfare in time of peace aim to weaken or bring about the collapse or defeat of the target state, with the ultimateaim of changing its political regime. The difference lies in the intensity with which these goalscan be pursued and...the range of instruments available with which to pursue them.”
Today the Central Intelligence Agency, with the help of other agencies, provides economicintelligence for U.S. policy, monitor international transactions, international economic andenvironmental problems, including trade and finance; defense markets and logistics; geographicresources, including demographics and commodities; civil technology, including aerospace,advanced manufacturing, and emerging technologies; and energy resources.
The intelligencegathering agencies are awakening to the face of the dynamic and volatile international politicaleconomy. They have to thread carefully as it is the responsibility of the agencies to prevent thepotential war or economic anarchy by understanding the international political economy. In sucha dimension, the intelligence agents and analysts have a crucial role as important as the policymakers.
Millikan, Max F., "The Nature and Methods of Economic Intelligence," Studies in Intelligence,Spring 1956Noren, James., 'CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Economy,' in
Watching the Bear: Essays on CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Union
, (eds.) Gerald K. Haines and Robert E. Leggett. Washington, DC:Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2003.Jeffrey-Jones, Rohdri., 'The CIA and the American Democaracy'. Yale University press, 1989Simpson, Christopher., 'Science of Coercion: Communication, Research and PsychologicalWarfare, 1945-1960. Oxford University Press. 1994O' Sullivan, Meghan L., 'Shrewd Sanctions: Statecraft and State Sponsors of Terrorism.'Brookings Instituition Press, Washington D.CDobson, Alan P., 'United States Economic Statecraft for Survival, 1933-1991: Of Sanctions andStrategic Embargoes' Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics.Robarge, David S., Getting It Right: CIA Analysis of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Center for theStudy in Intelligence, Vol. 49, No.1, 2005
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