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D. H. French - Late Chalcolithic Pottery.....

D. H. French - Late Chalcolithic Pottery.....

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Late Chalcolithic Pottery in North-West Turkey and the AegeanAuthor(s): D. H. FrenchSource:
Anatolian Studies,
Vol. 11 (1961), pp. 99-141Published by:
Stable URL:
Accessed: 21/09/2011 13:31
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LATECHALCOLITHICPOTTERYINNORTH-WESTTURKEYANDTHEAEGEANByD.H.
FRENCHTHE
MAINPURPOSE
of this articleis topublishmaterial collectedfromsurveysin WesternAnatolia,Thrace andThessalywhich weremade withthe intentionofdiscoveringpossiblelinks betweenthese threeareas in theperiodwhichinSouth-WestAnatolia iscalledLateChalcolithic.Suchsuggestionsas areputforward for the constructionof a relativeandabsolutechronologyineach area areonlytentative;throughoutthe aimhasbeen toemphasisetheproblemsofequating potteryculturesofadjacentregionswhicharethoughttobecontemporary.SURVEY
NORTH-WESTTURKEY
The materialinthis article from North-WestTurkeywascollectedinOctober
1959.1
Twoimportantbutpreviouslyalmostunsurveyedareas,theplainsofBahkesir
2
andAkhisar-Manisa,were covered.The coastfromEdremitto Izmirwas notinvestigatedasitwasnotconsideredtoliewithin the areaand as it hadalreadybeensurveyed,atleastpartially,byothers.3The lowland areafrom Bursawestwards,althoughit isnowbeginningtoproducesites,was not includedinthissurvey.Thepotterybeingpublishedhere isentirelyof theperiodwhichontypologicalgroundsiscalledLateChalcolithic.Sherds
4
ofEarlyChalcolithicwaresand ofthe BronzeAgeperiodswerefound butarenot relevanttothisarticle.Thematerial here illustratedisbasedentirelyuponsherds,therebeingnocompletepotsavailableinTurkeyforcomparativestudy.Thesites arewithoutexceptionmoundsdiscoveredwellouton,orjustontheedgeof flatplain.In no case weretheyonhills oronrockyeminences.Fresh waterfromsprings,streamsorperennialriverswasnearat handin allcases.Themountains,although bynowsomewhatdeforested,carrytreesto thisday.Thereare alsoafair number ofoak treesscatteredabout theplain,especiallynorth ofManisa. ThetwoplainsofBahkesirand Akhisar-Manisaare as fertileandaswell wateredasanyontheplateau,thoughthetemperaturenear the coastishigherbothinsummerand winter. Both areasareeasilyaccessiblefromthe coast:viatheHermos orvia the Caicos toAkhisar;toBahkesireitherdirectlyfromthegulfof Edremit(theline of the modernroad)or fromtheMarmora
1
As Institute Scholarfor
i959.
IamgreatlyindebtedtoMr. SetonLloydforhissupportandencouragementand toMr.JamesMellaartfor thehelpandinformationwhich he has onalloccasionsgenerously given.
2
Previously byJ.Stewartin1939-MaterialintheGermanArchaeologicalInstituteat Istanbul. SeealsoMellaart,Ist.Mitt. 6(955),80ff.
3
AmongothersDriehaus,Ist.Mitt.7(i957),76ff.
4
Aselection of sherdsrepresentingalltheperiodsfoundmaybe seenintheBritishInstituteofArchaeologyatAnkara.
 
I00
ANATOLIANSTUDIESbythe riverSimav.Theyare alsoaccessiblefromeach otherviatheGelenbe-Savagteperoute. TheregionofBeycesultancan be reachedbytheeasyroutevia the Hermosvalley,the Buldanpass,Denizli and(ardak.
THRACE
Inthe westernhalf ofGreek Thrace we havethe sites in theplainoftheAngistaespeciallyDrama5andDikiliTash butin the east wehaveessentially onlyonesite, Paradimi,6 kilometres south-westof Komotini.The collectionof sherds fromParadimi and Dikili TashwasmadeinNovemberI959.Both sites have been excavatedbut notpublished.6The site of Paradimiis amound on theedgeof therollingcountryover-lookingthe river Bokloutza.DikiliTash is situated on theedgeof whatmayoncehavebeenwetmarshygroundataslightdistancefrom themountains to the eastandnorth-east.Polystylo7was also visited butsurfacematerialwasnotplentiful.Material from these sites hasbeenclassifiedinthepastunderthegeneral headingofNeolithic.Turkish Thraceisstillarchaeologicallyunexplored;thereisonlyonenew site to add tothemap,KanalhK6prii,a smallmound some
IIkilometres westofSilivri.
MACEDONIA
One site wasvisited,that atStivos(formerlyGioumenitza).8 Actuallythereare atleast twoseparatemounds,AandB,aboutIoom.apart.Theyare situatedontheedgeoftheescarpmentoverlookingtheriverDerveni,about
2
to3km.belowStivosvillage.MoundB,from whichthe moreplentifulmaterialcame,isquitelarge,measuringc.150m.
by50m.
THESSALY
AresurveyofThessalian sites9wasbegunin1959. OnlytheareabetweenLarisa andVoloswascompleted.Old sites were refoundandincertaincasesrepositioned.Abouttwentynew sites were addedto thenumber of thosealreadyknown.Onlyonesite(notincludedinthisarticle)was nota moundbuiltupintheopenplain.AllcategoriesofThessalianpre-classicalwareswere found.Onlythe relevant classes areused here:MiddleGreek,Arapi,Dhimini,Larisa,GreyonGrey,Rakhmani,EarlyBronze redslippedandburnished ware.
5
MentionedbyWelch, BSA. XXIII(1918/19),
50.
6
ForreferencesconcerningDikiliTashand ParadimiseeSchachermeyr,PrdhistorischeKulturenGriechenlandsnRE.XXII,2,I394f.
7
Mylonas,Praktika1938,o9ff.;AJA. 45(i94I),557f.
8
SomesherdsfromStivosAareillustratedinHeurtley,PrehistoricMacedonia,155,nos.128-130.Thereare saidtobethreesites here.9Itishopedtocompletethisresurveyandpublishamapand fulltopographicalinformation inonesectionanddistributionand details of findsin asecond.Itmaybepossibleto dothisalsoforThraceandMacedonia.

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