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Table Of Contents

About the Roadmap
1. Overview
1.1 America’s Energy Challenges
Advantages of Algal Feedstocks
Research from 1996 to Present
1.3 Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today
Technology and Analysis Challenges
Regulations and Standards
Public-Private Partnerships
2. Algal Biology
2.1 Strain Isolation, Screening and Selection
Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae
Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers
Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study
Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism
2.2 Algal Physiology and Biochemistry
Photosynthesis and Light Utilization
Lipid Synthesis and Regulation
Algal Carbohydrates
Biohydrogen
2.3 Algal Biotechnology
The Genetic Toolbox
Enabling Technologies: “Omics” Approaches and Bioinformatics
Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy
Considerations of Genetic Modifications
References
3.1 Cultivation Pathways
Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
3. Algal Cultivation
Macroalgae
Stability of Large-Scale Cultures
3.2 Scale-Up Challenges
Nutrient Sources, Sustainability, and Management
System Productivity
Water Management, Conservation, and Recycling
4.1 Approaches for Microalgae
Harvesting
4. Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering
Drying
4.2 Approaches for Macroalgae
4.3 Systems Engineering
Preprocessing
Preliminary Look at Energy Balance
Mechanical Disruption (i.e., Cell Rupture)
5. Extraction of Products from Algae
5.1 Current Practices for Lipid Extraction
Organic Co-solvent Mixtures
Selective Extraction
Accelerated Solvent Extraction
Heterotrophic Production
Subcritical Water Extraction
Supercritical Fluid Extraction
5.2 Challenges
Alcohols
Pyrolysis
Hydrogen
6.2 Processing of Whole Algae
Gasification
Liquefaction
Supercritical Processing
Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae
6.3 Conversion of Algal Extracts
Chemical Transesterification
Chemical Transesterfication
Catalytic Cracking
Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion
Conversion to Renewable Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuel
6.4 Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction
7.1 Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
7. Co-products
7.2 Commercial Products from Macroalgae
7.3 Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products
8. Distribution and Utilization
8.1 Distribution
Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products
9.1 Resource Requirements for Diferent Cultivation Approaches
Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach
9. Resources and Siting
Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach
Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach
9.2 Resources Overview
Climate
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Land
Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications
9.4 Integration with Water Treatment Facilities
Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants
Main Research Needs for Algae Production with Wastewater
Directions for Research and Development
Barriers to Co-Location of Algae Production with Stationary Industrial CO
10. Systems and Techno-Economic Analysis
10.1 Objectives of Techno-Economic Analysis
10.2 TEA Scope and Methods
10.3 Suggestions for TEA and LCA Approach (Workshop Results and Discussion)
10.4 Systems Analysis
Overview
Engineering Analyses and GIS Assessments
Impact of Geographic Variability of Inputs on Algal Biofuel Production Costs
Life Cycle Analysis
10.5 Algae Production Costs and Uncertainties
10.6 Preliminary System Dynamics Modeling
10.7 Potential Directions for R&D Efort
11. Public-Private Partnerships
11.1 The Benefits of Algal Biofuels Public-Private Partnerships
11.2 Components of Successful Public-Private Partnerships
11.3 Forums for Public- Private Partnerships
11.5 Modeling Partnerships for Technology Development
Appendices
Appendix 1 : Workshop Participants
Appendix 2: Contributors
Appendix 3: Respondents to Request for Information on the Draft Roadmap
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Algal Biofuels Alginato

Algal Biofuels Alginato

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Published by Andreia Correia

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Published by: Andreia Correia on May 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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