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RHEL Tuning Guide

RHEL Tuning Guide

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Published by: chasitb on May 28, 2012
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 
Performance Tuning Guide
 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux: Performance Tuning Guide
Copyright © 2004 by Red Hat, Inc.
1801 Varsity DriveRaleigh NC 27606-2072USAPhone: +1 919 754 3700Phone: 888 733 4281Fax: +1 919 754 3701PO Box 13588Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USAThis documentis derived, in part, from papers by Henry Maine, Neil Horman, Rik Faith, Adrian Likins, Sherif Abdelgawad,Ulrich Drepper, Will Cohen, and Daniel Barrange.Red Hat is a registeredtrademarkand the Red Hat ShadowMan logo, RPM, and the RPM logo are trademarksof Red Hat, Inc.Linux is a registeredtrademarkof Linus Torvalds.Intel
TM
, Pentium
TM
, Itanium
TM
, and Celeron
TM
are registeredtrademarks of Intel Corporation.All other trademarksand copyrightsreferredto are the property of their respectiveowners.Copyright © 2005 by Red Hat Inc. This material may be distributedonly subject to the terms and conditionsset forth in theOpen PublicationLicense, V1.0 or later (the latest version is presentlyavailableat http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/).A PDF version of this manual is availableonline at http://people.redhat.com/mbehm/.
 
Table of Contents
Preface...................................................................................................................................................i
1. Who this Manual is For..........................................................................................................i2. Document Conventions..........................................................................................................i3. We Need Feedback...............................................................................................................iii
1. Evidence-Based Performance Analysis and Tuning ....................................................................1
1.1. Is the Performance Problem 5% or 50%?..........................................................................11.1.1. Avoid Jumping to Conclusions ...........................................................................11.2. Evidence-Based Analysis...................................................................................................11.2.1. Developing a Model............................................................................................21.2.2. Planning What Evidence to Gather.....................................................................21.2.3. Gathering Evidence from the Running Application ...........................................31.2.4. Analyzing the Evidence......................................................................................31.2.5. Summarize Findings and Propose an Experiment..............................................51.3. Evidence-Based Tuning.....................................................................................................5
2. System Tuning Tools for Linux Servers ........................................................................................7
2.1. Benchmarking Utilities......................................................................................................72.1.1. Web Server Benchmarking Tools........................................................................82.2. System-Monitoring Utilities ..............................................................................................92.3. Kernel Monitoring Utilities..............................................................................................112.4. Disk Benchmarking and Monitoring Utilities..................................................................122.5. Memory Monitoring Utilities...........................................................................................132.6. Network Monitoring Utilities ..........................................................................................152.7. Tools for Improving Application Performance................................................................162.7.1. Pointer-Use Errors ............................................................................................172.7.2. Tools for NPTL.................................................................................................18
3. Understanding the Virtual Memory Management System.......................................................21
3.1. Virtual Memory Terminology..........................................................................................213.1.1. What Comprises a VM......................................................................................213.1.2. Memory Management Unit (MMU).................................................................223.1.3. Zoned Buddy Allocator.....................................................................................233.1.4. Slab Allocator ...................................................................................................243.1.5. Kernel Threads..................................................................................................243.1.6. Components that Use the VM...........................................................................263.2. The Life of A Page...........................................................................................................263.3. Tuning the VM.................................................................................................................283.3.1. bdflush...............................................................................................................283.3.2. dcache_priority .................................................................................................293.3.3. hugetlb_pool .....................................................................................................293.3.4. inactive_clean_percent......................................................................................303.3.5. kswapd ..............................................................................................................303.3.6. max_map_count................................................................................................303.3.7. max-readahead..................................................................................................303.3.8. min-readahead...................................................................................................313.3.9. overcommit_memory........................................................................................313.3.10. overcommit_ratio............................................................................................313.3.11. pagecache........................................................................................................313.3.12. page-cluster.....................................................................................................32

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