Energy levels and feed presentation for laying hens 2009-10 Page | 2
Energy consumption:Between 2200 and 3000 kcal, an average drop in energy consumption of 1.2% is seen whenthe energy level decreases by 100 kcal, with a variance of 0 to 3%. These results agree withthose obtained by Morris in a 1968 overview.The experiments showing the greatest reduction in consumption seem to be those where purecellulose was used to dilute the feed, either through the addition of pure cellulose, sunflowermeal or rice husk, which led to a great reduction in intake. In fact, the addition of cellulosecontributes to a reduction in feed density and therefore to a considerable increase in thevolume which has to be ingested.The greatest reductions in energy intake were obtained by Balnave (2000), with a reduction of2.96% for 100 kcal, due in all likelihood to his use of 8.3% rice husk in his 2535 kcal diet. In theexperiment carried out by ISA, (Joly, 1997) the cellulose content of the feeds was 4%, 5.9%and 7.8%. The 2200 kcal diet contained 22% sunflower cake and 8.9% bran. As for Leeson(2001), dilution was carried out with a mixture of pure cellulose and sand, with incorporationlevels of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% pure cellulose (alphafloc). The Peguri (1991) 2702 kcal diet alsocontained 2.9% pure cellulose.These results show that feed density plays an important part in energy regulation. Inversely,dilution with sand has much less effect. This was only 0.8% in the trial carried out by Harms,where all dilution was by means of sand.Walker (1991) observed no variation in energy intake between 2560 and 2800 kcal becausenone of his diets contained added fat. The same is true of diets with 3% added fat where theenergy level ranged from 2775 to 2990 kcal.
Table n°3: Effect of feed dilution on variations in intake, rates of lay and weight of eggs,expressed as a % for an increase of 100 kcal in feed energy level.
Reduction in energy intake levels varies by 0% to 3% per 100 kcal and depends upon the rawmaterials used, the average working out at 1.2%. This largely depends upon the way in whichdilution has been carried out. The amount of the energy intake seems to depend upon thefeed density. This observation was already made by Gleaves (1965) who concluded that thequantity of the energy intake was in relation to the feed density.
Number of eggs:
This is largely unaffected by the feed energy level and in all cases, thedifference being less than 1%.With a variation of the energy level from 2560 to 2800 kcal, Walker (1991) observed nodifference in production. In the ISA experiments (Joly, 1997) no significant differences wereseen. The observed reductions in performance were only 0.2% with the 2460 kcal diet and1.3% with the 2208 kcal diet. The lay was only reduced by 1% with the 2535 kcal diet inBalnave’s experiments (2000). The 2465 kcal diet diluted with the sand/cellulose mixture gave
AuthorsVariation as a percentage per 100 kcal Energy levelsused (kcal)Intake Rate of lay Egg weight
Walker 0 % (1991)Walker 3 % (1991)Peguri (1991) aISA –Joly (1996)Grobas (1999)Balnave (2000) aHarms (2000)Leeson (2001) aVan Der Lee (2001)+0.17-0.06+2.75+1.98-0.24+2.96+0.82+1.41+0.82
Average +1.18 +0.03 +0.36