For thousands of years, man has sun dried foods tosustain him in off-season periods. The following aresome recorded examples of the very early application ofsun drying. As far back
20,000 BC meat was cut intostrips and sun dried in Russia. Around 10,OOO BC saltwas produced by sun drying seawater. American Indiansmade dried mashed potatoes about 3500 BC. Thepotatoes were frozen overnight and trampled to expressout the juices. This process was repeated before themash was dried. In ancient Egypt (2800-2300 BC) fruitsuch
apples, grapes and apricots were sun dried.Around 500 BC, dry-salted fish was produced.Tea was dried in India in 300-400
In the period710-785
large quantities of sun-dried foods wereproduced in Japan including fruits, vegetables, fish andshellfish, meat and poultry. The dried products werestored in warehouses. Around 900
fish was sun
in Norway. The Mongolian army used sun driedpowdered
America dried boiled Indian corn over !ires.In 1780
the first patent on vegetable drying wastaken out in America. The vegetables were boiled in saltwater, and kept for 20-30 hours. The quality was poor.In 1795
in France, sliced vegetables were dried in
pressed, and sealed in foil. Enzyme activityoccurred and vitamin C was destroyed.Dried vegetables were shipped to the British troopsduring the Crimean war (1854-1856) and were also usedby the Union troops in the American Civil War(1861-1865). In 1865
a patent for producing driedegg was taken out. In 1872, Samuel Percy took out apatent on “Improvements in Drying and ConcentratingLiquid Substances by Atomizing”, i.e. spray
vegetables, produced in Canada,were used by British troops during the Boer warDevelopments accelerated in the 20th century. In1901, Robert
patented a spray drier for blood and
featured an upward-spraying nozzle andperforated plate
disperser. In 1902, Just Hatmaker(1899-1902).developed a drum drier. Merrel Soul, an Americancompany, purchased the Stauff patent in 1905 anddeveloped a spray drier for producing
was a box-type, horizontal-concurrent drier which wasoperated on a batch principle.
1912, George Kraussdeveloped the centrifugal spray drier and in 1913 Greyand Jensen developed a conical spray drier.
type ofspray drier was used extensively for many years. Driedvegetables were supplied to British and American troopsduring World War
(1914-1918). During that period,there was considerable expansion in vegetable-dryingfacilities in Europe, including cabinet, tunnel andconveyor driers. Research
vacuum drying of foodswas also undertaken. C.
Rogers introduced thecontinuous box-type, horizonal-concurrent, spray-drierin 1917. The jet-spray drier was developed by Coulter in1940. Before and during World War
(1939-1945) awhole range of dried products was developed, includingdrum-dried soup mixes and tomato flakes, spray-dried
and egg products, vacuum-dried fruits, and
dried onions and garlic. In the period 1939-1945 a hugeexpansion in drying facilities occurred in Europe andAmerica and dried foods were used extensively by thetroops of
the parties to the conflict.
1945, Flosdorffirst used vacuum freeze drying for foods. Considerableresearch into freeze drying was undertaken in the
inthe early 1950s which led to the development of theaccelerated freeze drying
method. Freeze-dryingplants for meat, fish and vegetables were set up in manycountries, notably Ireland. However, mainly because ofthe costliness of the process, interest in freeze drying
such products waned over the next decade.The first instantized
was introduced by Peeblesin 1954. The BIRS drier was introduced in 1962 but itdid not receive widespread application. In 1965, the firstpatent on instant coffee was taken out. Since thenconsiderable advances have been made in improving theorganoleptic quality and reconstitution properties ofinstant beverages. In 1960, the first freeze-dried instantcoffee was produced. The production of freeze-dried