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Principals of Food Dehydration

Principals of Food Dehydration

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Published by: MoreMoseySpeed on May 28, 2012
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11/14/2012

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Contents
Prefacevii
Part
1
Historical Background and General Principles
1
Part
2
Dictionary of
Food
Dehydration17
Part
3
A
Guide
to
Dehydrated
Foods
Part
4
Bibliography183
 
Preface
Drying is the oldest method of food preservationpractised 6y man. Today the dehydration section of thefood industry is large and extends to all countriesthroughout the world. Facilities range in size fromsimple sun driers to very large capacity, sophisticateddrying installations. A very wide range of dehydratedfoods is available including vegetables, fruits, meat, fish,cereal and milk products. Dehydrated soup and saucemixes and complete meals made up of dried ingredients
are
also available. A great deal of research has beencarried out to improve the quality and convenience ofdehydrated foods. Many modem dried foods may
be
reconstituted quickly to yield products with good flavourand texture. Thus, they make an important contributionto the convenience food market.This book
is
made up of four parts.
Part
1
covers thehistorical background and general principles of fooddehydration by means of heated air, by contact with aheated surface, by the application of radiant, microwaveor dielectric energy and by freeze drying. In
Part
2
information on drying phenomena, methods and equip-ment
is
presented in dictionary form.Aguide to theprocedures and conditions used for drying specific foodsis given in
Part
3.
An extensive list of references on
aspects
of food dehydration makes up
Part
4.
It
is hoped that this work will
be
of interest to staff andstudents involved in undergraduate and postgraduatecourses in food science, technology and engineering, andto researchers in the field of food dehydration. It shouldalso
be
a quick and easy source of information forpersons working in this section of the food industry.
JG
Brennan
 
Historical Background
For thousands of years, man has sun dried foods tosustain him in off-season periods. The following aresome recorded examples of the very early application ofsun drying. As far back
as
20,000 BC meat was cut intostrips and sun dried in Russia. Around 10,OOO BC saltwas produced by sun drying seawater. American Indiansmade dried mashed potatoes about 3500 BC. Thepotatoes were frozen overnight and trampled to expressout the juices. This process was repeated before themash was dried. In ancient Egypt (2800-2300 BC) fruitsuch
as
apples, grapes and apricots were sun dried.Around 500 BC, dry-salted fish was produced.Tea was dried in India in 300-400
AD.
In the period710-785
AD,
large quantities of sun-dried foods wereproduced in Japan including fruits, vegetables, fish andshellfish, meat and poultry. The dried products werestored in warehouses. Around 900
AD,
fish was sun
dried
in Norway. The Mongolian army used sun driedpowdered
milk
in 1240
AD.
Around 1650
AD
colonistsin
North
America dried boiled Indian corn over !ires.In 1780
AD,
the first patent on vegetable drying wastaken out in America. The vegetables were boiled in saltwater, and kept for 20-30 hours. The quality was poor.In 1795
AD,
in France, sliced vegetables were dried in
air
at
WC,
pressed, and sealed in foil. Enzyme activityoccurred and vitamin C was destroyed.Dried vegetables were shipped to the British troopsduring the Crimean war (1854-1856) and were also usedby the Union troops in the American Civil War(1861-1865). In 1865
AD,
a patent for producing driedegg was taken out. In 1872, Samuel Percy took out apatent on “Improvements in Drying and ConcentratingLiquid Substances by Atomizing”, i.e. spray
drying/
concentrating.
Dried
vegetables, produced in Canada,were used by British troops during the Boer warDevelopments accelerated in the 20th century. In1901, Robert
Stauff
patented a spray drier for blood and
milk.
This
featured an upward-spraying nozzle andperforated plate
air
disperser. In 1902, Just Hatmaker(1899-1902).developed a drum drier. Merrel Soul, an Americancompany, purchased the Stauff patent in 1905 anddeveloped a spray drier for producing
milk
powder.
This
was a box-type, horizontal-concurrent drier which wasoperated on a batch principle.
In
1912, George Kraussdeveloped the centrifugal spray drier and in 1913 Greyand Jensen developed a conical spray drier.
This
type ofspray drier was used extensively for many years. Driedvegetables were supplied to British and American troopsduring World War
I
(1914-1918). During that period,there was considerable expansion in vegetable-dryingfacilities in Europe, including cabinet, tunnel andconveyor driers. Research
on
vacuum drying of foodswas also undertaken. C.
E.
Rogers introduced thecontinuous box-type, horizonal-concurrent, spray-drierin 1917. The jet-spray drier was developed by Coulter in1940. Before and during World War
II
(1939-1945) awhole range of dried products was developed, includingdrum-dried soup mixes and tomato flakes, spray-dried
milk
and egg products, vacuum-dried fruits, and
air-
dried onions and garlic. In the period 1939-1945 a hugeexpansion in drying facilities occurred in Europe andAmerica and dried foods were used extensively by thetroops of
all
the parties to the conflict.
In
1945, Flosdorffirst used vacuum freeze drying for foods. Considerableresearch into freeze drying was undertaken in the
UK
inthe early 1950s which led to the development of theaccelerated freeze drying
(AFD)
method. Freeze-dryingplants for meat, fish and vegetables were set up in manycountries, notably Ireland. However, mainly because ofthe costliness of the process, interest in freeze drying
of
such products waned over the next decade.The first instantized
milk
was introduced by Peeblesin 1954. The BIRS drier was introduced in 1962 but itdid not receive widespread application. In 1965, the firstpatent on instant coffee was taken out. Since thenconsiderable advances have been made in improving theorganoleptic quality and reconstitution properties ofinstant beverages. In 1960, the first freeze-dried instantcoffee was produced. The production of freeze-dried
3

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