Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A Solution of Obstacle Collision Avoidance for Robotic Fish Based on Fuzzy Systems

A Solution of Obstacle Collision Avoidance for Robotic Fish Based on Fuzzy Systems

Ratings: (0)|Views: 32|Likes:
Published by pvdai
Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá - VCCA-2011

A Solution of Obstacle Collision Avoidance for Robotic Fish Based on Fuzzy Systems Một lời giải cho việc tránh va chạm vật cản cho cá robot dựa trên hệ mờ
1 1 Nguyen Dang Phuc Nguyen Truong Thinh Nguyen Ngoc Phuong nguyendangphuc1989@gmail.com thinhnt@hcmute.edu.vn phuongnn@hcmute.edu.vn 1 Department of Mechatronics, HCMC University of Technical Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam 1

Abstract
This paper is addressed in fuzzy decision
Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá - VCCA-2011

A Solution of Obstacle Collision Avoidance for Robotic Fish Based on Fuzzy Systems Một lời giải cho việc tránh va chạm vật cản cho cá robot dựa trên hệ mờ
1 1 Nguyen Dang Phuc Nguyen Truong Thinh Nguyen Ngoc Phuong nguyendangphuc1989@gmail.com thinhnt@hcmute.edu.vn phuongnn@hcmute.edu.vn 1 Department of Mechatronics, HCMC University of Technical Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam 1

Abstract
This paper is addressed in fuzzy decision

More info:

Published by: pvdai on May 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/04/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá
- VCCA-2011VCCA-2011
 A Solution of Obstacle Collision Avoidance for Robotic Fish Based on Fuzzy Systems
 
Một
l
ời
g
iải
cho v
iệc
tránh va c
hạm
v
ật
c
ản
cho cá robotd
ựa
trên h
m
ờ 
 
1
Nguyen Dang Phuc
1
Nguyen Truong Thinh
1
Nguyen Ngoc Phuong
1
Department of Mechatronics, HCMC University of Technical Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
Abstract
This paper is addressed in fuzzy decision made to
change on trajectory direction of robot‟s path
. Thegeneration of membership functions for fuzzy systemsis a challenging problem. While robotic fish isswimming in the environment with a high potential of hurdles, it is possible for them to meet with collisionsbecause there are many kinds of obstructions in water.Therefore, approaching natural and smoothmovements for robotic fish is related to the detectingand recognizing obstacles as well as trying to avoidany kind of collision. Two fundamental data are themeasuring of distance from sensor to obstacles andthe possible existence of obstacles. Because the datais nonlinear, they can be solved with the fuzzytrajectory direction. The changing direction of trajectory of a robot should be made so that the robotcan move in the direction with no hurdles. Theexperimental results indicate that robotic fish changesthe trajectory planed following the proposed fuzzydecision results within the higher obstacles densitywithout collision.
Tóm tắt
 
Bài viết này báo
 
cáo kết quả của đề tài quyết định mờ cho việc thay đổi hướng quỹ đạo đường đi robot. Sự phát sinh của các hàm liên thuộc cho tập mờ mộtvấn đề
 
đầy
 
thử thách. Trong khi cá robot bơi trongmôi trường có mật độ cao các chướng ngại
 
vật, robotcó thể xảy ra va chạm trong quá trình thí nghiệm docác loại
 
chướng
 
ngại
 
vật
 
trong nước. Vì
 
vậy, khả năng phát hiện nhận biết chướng ngại vật cũng như tránh va chạm ảnh hưởng đến chuyển động nhịpnhàng và tự nhiên của cá robot. Hai
 
dữ liệu cơ  bản
đo
 
khoảng cách
 
từ
 
cảm biến tới vật cản
 
và khảnăng tồn tại
 
của
 
các chướng
 
ngại
 
vật. Mặc dù
 
nhữngdữ liệu này
những
 
dữ liệu
 
 phi tuyến, nhưng chúngcó thể được giải quyết bằng hệ mờ trong việc xác địnhhướng quỹ đạo.
Thay
đổi hướng quỹ đạo
 
củ
arobot
được
 
thực
 
hiện
 
để các
 
robot có thể
di
chuyển
 
theo hướng
không có
trở ngại. Các kết quả
 
thửnghiệm
 
cho thấy
robot thay đổi
 
quỹ đạo theo
 
kếtquả
 
của quyết định mờ 
 
được đề
 
xuất chuyển độngtrong môi trường có
 
mật độ
 
cao chướng ngại vật cao
mà không
va chạm.
 
1.
 
Introduction
In the aquatic environment, the various kinds of water
 plants and trashes slow down the robot‟s smooth and
natural movements. Therefore, the robot needs todetect the obstacles in advance in order to movewithout collision. The solution is to employ sonarsensor or camera possibly. They analyze the imagedata of the target areas to recognize the possibleobstacle. However, neither sonar sensor nor camera isused to simplify and neaten the robot structure. As aresult, the use of simpler IR distance sensors is
 proposed for robotic fish‟s eyes. Robotic fish makes
appropriate propulsion direction movements to avoidcollision based on the analyzing IR distance sensorsdata. All circuits, sensors, and RF transmissionmodule are contained in a chassis.An illustration of applications of robotic fish, anew method of mapping and tracking systems isintroduced by using ubiquitous sensors networks [1].In the water pool imitating the similar situation suchas the high density of obstacles, the robot swims tothe plain area. The changes in the direction of trajectory direction of monitoring robots based onfuzzy decision are proposed. It employs twofundamental data of the measured distance fromsensor to obstacles and the possible existence of obstacles. The experimental results show that roboticfish, which employs changing direction followingfuzzy decision results, increases movement ability inthe region of high obstacles density without collision.
2.
 
Robotic Fish
The robotic fish is a research involving inbiomimetics. The robot which has various structuresand shapes of real fish imitate the real fish swim. Therobotic fish uses three servo motors to produce thepropulsion through the water. IR distance sensorsindicate the distance from the robots to obstacles inwater. They are attached to the front and two sides of the head to measure the distance to an obstacle. ThreePIC 16F887 capture and process all signals fromsensors as well as to control the actuators. An RFtransmission module is integrated to transmit usercommand and sensor data between the robotic fishand a host PC.The infrared distance sensor is mainly to measuredistance from the robotic fish to an obstacle. Threeinfrared distance sensors, GP2D12, are employed inthis robotic fish pattern. Although, the detectable
289
 
 Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá
- VCCA-2011VCCA-2011
range is 10-62 cm in the air, the range is reduced toabout 10-30 cm underwater. The noise level becomeshigher as the distance gets longer. Fig. 1. and Fig. 2.indicate the configuration of the sensors on the fishr
obot‟s body and the IR distance sensor ranges in air and water environments. Table. 1. shows the robot‟s
specification.The robotic fish is employed two turning algorithmswhich are the turning using kinetic energy and theturning using moment of rotation. In the first mode,the robot swims straight and gets kinetic energy.Next, it turns its tail to one side, and keeps the postureto the side. Afterwards, the robotic fish turn byhydrodynamics force. In the second mode, robotswings its tail to one side rapidly from stationarystate. In this turning mode, inertia force and frictionforce of the moving tail and a body are changed to themoment of rotation [7].
3.
 
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller
Takagi-Sugeno(T-S) system has recently become apowerful practical engineering tool for controllingcomplex systems. It has applied to variety of industrial robot and complex robot such as biped,snake and hexa robot. Fuzzy making decision is aninterpolation method partitioning the membershipfunctions into fuzzy area. Each area is estimated bythe simple local model which is often a linear model.The global area is obtained by interpolating all of areas. As a result, the fuzzy making decision canobserve the strongly nonlinear function through asimple structure and the limited rules [2].
IR distanceSensor
 Fig.1.
Configuration of the sensors on the Robotic Fish.
TABLE I. S
PECIFICATIONS OF A ROBOTIC FISH
 
Item
Specification
Length 580 mmWidth 80 mmHeight 125 mmWeight 1200 gLength of tail fin 150 mmMaximum angle of tail fin 90
o
 Minimum rotation radio 6 mmMaximum speed 200 mm/sMaximum torque of motors 9 KgCmOperating speed 0.14s/60
o
 
 Fig.2.
 IR distance sensor ranges.
A T-
S fuzzy rule is described by a set of fuzzy “IF…THEN” rules. A generic T
-S rule can be written asfollows:R
i
: If x
i
is A
i1
 AND x
2
is A
i2
 
AND x
r
is A
ir
, THEN
12
,,...,,1,2,...,
i i r R
 y f x x x i n
(1)Where A
i1
, A
i2
, …, A
ir
are fuzzy sets in the antecedent,while y
i
is a crisp function in the consequent. y
i
isusually a polynomial function of input variables.However, it can be any function as long as it canappropriately describe the output of the model withinthe fuzzy region specified by the antecedent of therule. When y
i
is a first-order polynomial, as in thispaper, the resulting fuzzy inference system is called afirst-order Sugeno fuzzy model [3].
12
...,1,2,...,
i i1 i2 ir r i R
 y a x a x a x b i n
 
(2)When a
i1
, a
i2
, …, a
ir
and b
i
are the parameters whichshould be identified. The results of T-S fuzzy rule arehyperplanes (r-dimensional linear subspaces) in R
r+1
whereas the if - part of the rule partitions the inputspace and determines the validity of the n
R
locallylinear model for different regions of the antecedentspace. Since each rule has a crisp output, the overalloutput of the T-S system could be obtained viaweighted average formula (3).
111
;
 Ri R
ni iii A iniii
 y w y w xw
 
(3)where n
R
is equal to the number of rules.The remains of the T-S controller is a method toestimate parameters a
i1
, a
i2
, …, a
ir
and b
i
of the modelshown in
Eq. 2
.
4.
 
Distance Estimation
The robot is about 330 mm long, 70 mm wide and110 mm high. Altogether, there are five modules andfour flexible joints. Five modules are necessary tomake the similar body to real fish. In
Fig. 1.
the robotis presented in five modules.The movement of a caudal fin produces oscillations of 
robotic fish‟s body. Therefore, the outputs of 
theinfrared sensor change in a swing pattern, but the real
290
 
 Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá
- VCCA-2011VCCA-2011
longrealshort
 Fig.3.
 Real distance and measured distances.
distance is maintained.
Fig. 3.
shows the real distanceand various measured distance.
Eq. 4.
shows generalswim function [5].
sin2
i i i i i
 A t K Am ft
 
(4)A
i
is the angle of i
th
tail motor, K
i
is amplitude factor,A
mi
is amplitude, f is frequency of caudal fin,
i
isphase delay of i
th
motors, and
i
is deflection angle forslow and quick turn. We use 10 degree maximumamplitudes of angle and 35 degree phase delays forgeneral swim. Swim frequency is 0.5 Hz.
When the approaching angle of the robotic fish is θ
and the swing angle of head is Ai, the fish robot readsreal distance as dreal and long distance as dlong.Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the exact realdistance from the robot to the obstacle. A fuzzydistance estimation method is used to find the exactdistance regardless of the swing of its head. The meanvalue of distance data of one period from the past half to the future half period is defined as a real distance.However, it is impossible to use future distance datain a real time system. Thus, the previous distance of one swing period is used get distance estimation. Thisdata is mean distance of half period ago. Therefore, amoved distance in the past half period should beadded to get a current distance. The sampling time is20 ms, and the swing period is 2 seconds are appliedfor the fish robot.The flowing procedures are proposed to get a fuzzydistance estimation:-
 
Calculate the mean value of distance data (D
m
)for past one swing period.-
 
Calculate the mean value of past ten samples atcurrent (D
c
) and past (D
p
) one swing period ago.-
 
Calculate the distance change for half swimperiod (O
p
) with O
p
= (D
c
- D
p
)/2.-
 
Calculate a compensation factor O
c
which iscalculated by a fuzzy logic system.The inputs of fuzzy system are distance data Dm,distance change for half swim period Op and thedirection information D. The ANFIS inference isemployed to train the distance estimation.
5.
 
Proposed Method For Fuzzy DecisionMaking on Direction Changes
Robotic fish probably encourages serious difficultiesavoiding obstacle collision due to various kinds of obstacles in the water. In order to approach naturaland smooth movement for robotic fish concerns thedetecting and recognizing obstacles as well as theavoiding collision, we propose a fuzzy decisionmaking on trajectory direction changes. In theexperiment, the measured distance from sensor toobstacles and the possible existence of obstacles aretwo essential input data for the fuzzy algorithm.
 A.
 
 Establish the upper and lower margins for the inputs
 The assignment process to define the upper and lowermargins can base on some algorithms or localoperation as well as intuition. It also derived throughunderstanding and prior knowledge about the systems[4]. For example, the upper and lower margins of theCenter range are 15
o
and -15
o
, respectively. The upperand lower margins of the Long range are 20
o
and 0
o
,respectively.
 B. Defining fuzzy membership functions
The choice of membership function will help definethe output surface that is based on the combination of the multiple surfaces. Because of insuring smoothtransition among these surfaces, membership functionsmust be even, same type and input domain must beequally divided. The range of obstacle position (O.P.)is divided into three membership functions of Left,Center, and Right which are mean that the intensitiesof obstacles in left, center, and right side are higherthan any other ranges, respectively. The range of obstacle distance (O.D.) is also separated into threemembership functions of Short, Medium, and Longexpress distances from a sensor to the obstacle. Theoutput for the direction change is divided into fivemembership functions of LB: Turn Left Big, LS: TurnLeft Small, Center, RS: Turn Right Small, RB: TurnRight Big.
Fig. 4
. demonstrates the two fuzzificationsof inputs for the obstacle distance and obstacleposition and an output for the direction change.
(a)
 
Fuzzy membership functions of obstacle position.(b)
 
Fuzzy membership functions of obstacle distance.
291

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->