states that switching cannot occur between bound morphemes (Sankoff & Poplack 1981).
says that code-switching can only take place in positions where "the order of any two sentence elements, one before and oneafter the switch, is not excluded in either language" (Sankoff & Poplack 1981). For example, the sentence "I like you porque eres simpatico" isallowed, since it obeys the rules for relative clause formation in both Spanishand English.
says that closed classitems such as pronouns,
prepositons or conjunctions cannot be switched (Joshi 1985).
The Matrix Language Frame model (Myers-Scotton 1997, 2002) distinguishesthe roles of the participating languages.
The Matrix Language provides thegrammatical frame of bilingual clause. This model is complemented by the 4-M model of morpheme classification (Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2000).
functional head constraint
says that code-switching cannot occur betweena functional head (such as a complementizer, determiner or inflection) and itscomplement (a sentence, noun phrase or verb phrase) (Belazi et al. 1994).
Note that some of these constraints make specific assumptions about the nature of syntax, and are therefore controversial, especially among linguists who make differenttheoretical assumptions.Shana Poplack 's approach to language mixing is relatively independent of choice of syntactic theory, and use notions such as equivalence switching, nonce borrowing,flagged switching and constituent insertion to categorize, based on quantitativeanalysis of large corpora of bilingual conversation, the intrasentential mixing phenomena characteristic of different bilingual speech communities. These patternscan be rather different for even for two communities sharing the same language pairs.
Scholars use different names for various types of switching.
is switching outside the sentence or clause level,for example at sentence or clause boundaries.
is switching within a sentence or clause.
is switching a tag phraseor word from language B into
language A. (This is a common
is switching within a word itself, such as at amorpheme boundary.
offers the following example of code-switching from her work withSpanish speakers in New York city. In this example, Marta and her younger sister Lolita speak both Spanish and English with Zentella (ACZ) outside of their apartment building.Lolita: Oh, I could stay with Ana?Marta: - but you could ask
to see if you could come down.Lolita: OK.Marta: Ana, if I leave her here would you send her upstairs when you leave?ACZ: I'll tell you exactly when I have to leave, at ten o'clock.
Y son las nueve y cuarto.
("And it's nine fifteen.")