Calculus Tutorial -4 Advanced topics
My earlier two tutorials form the basic content of differential and integral calculus. I present in thistutorial some advanced material ---topics usually taught in a first course in Calculus.I presume youhave mastered the contents of the first two tutorials before you take up this one.This is based on manyresults given in the earlier tutorial.In this tutorial, we would learn:
Maxima ,minima of functions through derivatives
Simple optimisation problems
1 Second derivatives
A second derivative is the derivative of the derivative. To illustrate:The derivative of y:We call this "first derivative". Let us differentiate again: This we call the second derivative.Note the notation we are using: f'(y) is first derivativef''(y) is second derivative ; f'''(Y) is third derivative and so on.The physical meaning should be grasped at this point:The given functionis a parabola. The first derivative is the equation for a tangentline to this curve.f'(y) = 6x+2 gives the equation of the tangent line which gives the slope of the curve at any givenpoint.Take a point P(2,24) on this parabola.The slope of the curve at that point is f'(2)= 6 x2 +2 = 14.The second derivative f''(y) gives the slope of the tangent line: which is 6 ,of course: y'=mx+c wherem=6,c=2Therefore the second derivative gives the slope of the tangent to the given curve.