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Calculus Tutorial 4 -Advanced Topics

Calculus Tutorial 4 -Advanced Topics

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A detailed tutorial on advanced calculus topics based on my two tutorials: higher derivatives,maxima.minima, optimisation,partial derivatives,numerical integration---with practice problems,applied problems and business applications...easy to follow steps and lot of worked examples, and a few reference books,suggestions
A detailed tutorial on advanced calculus topics based on my two tutorials: higher derivatives,maxima.minima, optimisation,partial derivatives,numerical integration---with practice problems,applied problems and business applications...easy to follow steps and lot of worked examples, and a few reference books,suggestions

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Published by: Dr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K on Dec 28, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/30/2013

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Calculus Tutorial -4 Advanced topics
Introduction
 
My earlier two tutorials form the basic content of differential and integral calculus. I present in thistutorial some advanced material ---topics usually taught in a first course in Calculus.I presume youhave mastered the contents of the first two tutorials before you take up this one.This is based on manyresults given in the earlier tutorial.In this tutorial, we would learn:
Higher derivatives
Maxima ,minima of functions through derivatives
Simple optimisation problems
Partial derivatives
Numerical integration
1 Second derivatives
A second derivative is the derivative of the derivative. To illustrate:The derivative of y:We call this "first derivative". Let us differentiate again: This we call the second derivative.Note the notation we are using: f'(y) is first derivativef''(y) is second derivative ; f'''(Y) is third derivative and so on.The physical meaning should be grasped at this point:The given functionis a parabola. The first derivative is the equation for a tangentline to this curve.f'(y) = 6x+2 gives the equation of the tangent line which gives the slope of the curve at any givenpoint.Take a point P(2,24) on this parabola.The slope of the curve at that point is f'(2)= 6 x2 +2 = 14.The second derivative f''(y) gives the slope of the tangent line: which is 6 ,of course: y'=mx+c wherem=6,c=2Therefore the second derivative gives the slope of the tangent to the given curve.
 
Example1 Find the first and second derivatives for the function:Differentiating again:Example 2 Find the velocity and acceleration as a function of time for a bicycle if the distance traveledS(t): s(t)= 12t^2 +120 t + 20where s is in meters and t is in minutes.Find the velocity and acceleration at time t= 2minutes.Velocity v(t) = d S/dt= 24t+120Acceleration a(t) = dv/dt = d^2s/dt^2= 24The acceleration is constant , at 24 meters/minute.minute , while the velocity v(2)= 24 x 2+120 =168meters per minute. or168 x60 = 6880 meters /hour = 6.8 kilometers per hourExample 3 Find the first and second derivative for the function :Example 4 Marginal Costing The cost function for a product: C(Q)= 200 -12Q+ 2 Q^2 [in $]where Qis the production quantity.Find the first and second derivatives. The first derivative gives the marginal cost for increasing theproduction by one unit.Find the marginal cost at the production level of 100 units.At what rate the marginal cost will increase? marginal cost C'(100)= 400 - 12= 388 $ [ The Marginal Cost means the additional increase in cost when the production is increased by one unitat that level,that is from 100 units to 101 unit. ]The marginal cost increases constantly at 4$ .
 
Example5 Find the first and seecond derivative of : y= 2x^2 + sin 2x 
Practice Problems
:1 Find the second derivative for y= cot x2 for y= t/(1-t^2)3 for y= xtanx4 for y= 2sinx + 3 cos x5 for y= sec x6 A car is speeding at the speed of 45 miles per hour or 66 feet per second when the driver applies thebrake.The car comes to a stop after some distance .The distance with time during braking is as follows:s(t) = -8.5t^2 +66 twhere s is in feet and t in seconds.Find the velocity and acceleration as a function of time and find whenthe car will come to a stop. Ans: after 3.9 seconds6 An astronaut throws a rock standing on the moon. The height of the rock follows the equation: Find the velocity and accceleration as a function of time.Find the time when it reaches maximum height by setting velocity = 0 and find the maximum height.Compare the acceleration with that of acceleration on the earth's surface. h'(t) = 0; then t= 27/5.4= 5 secondsh(5)=-2.7 x 25 + 27 x 5 + 6 = 73.5 feet.The acceleration due to gravity on the moon is approximately 1/6th of g on earth which is 32feet/sec^2.---------------------------------------------------------------------
2 Finding the maximum and minimum points of a function
We shall use calculus to find the maximum and minimum points of a function. To illustrate the method,let us take a simple example first.Consider the function : y = 4 x(1-x)Can you guess the value of x for which y is a maximum in the interval: x:[0,1]You can find by inspection that the value of y is a maximum at x=0.5 ; y = 1Let us make a small table for this function:

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