Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Report Summary: Looking Forward Challenges to Poverty Reduction in Vietnam

Report Summary: Looking Forward Challenges to Poverty Reduction in Vietnam

Ratings: (0)|Views: 13,949|Likes:
Published by Oxfam in Vietnam
The ‘Looking forward: Challenges to Poverty Reduction in Vietnam’ report updates the results of the participatory poverty monitoring in rural communities project from 2007 to 2011. This has been a difficult time for poverty reduction in Vietnam. High inflation, the global financial crisis and economic recession, natural disasters and epidemics have affected the lives of everybody in the country, particularly poor people. Nevertheless, the poverty rate continues to decline. Major government investments have provided poor people with improved infrastructure, increased economic opportunities, more non-agricultural jobs, and better housing, educational, health and agricultural extension services. 55 percent of households in the research felt that their lives have improved over the last five years.
However, challenges still remain. Poverty reduction rates are uneven in rural areas. Findings from the report show that nearly two in five people in the monitoring sites do not see or are not sure of any changes while nine percent even felt that their lives had got worse in the last five years. Chronic poverty is increasingly concentrated, especially in ethnic minority areas; this is shown while comparing multidimensional poverty criteria between ethnic minority groups with the Kinh group. Despite the government’s poverty reduction efforts, findings from the monitoring sites shows alarming figures - 16 percent of families are still short of food up to nearly five months a year, one in four children under age five are malnourished, 42 percent of surveyed households still have no access to clean water, and four in five families still live without latrines or temporary latrines. A significant number of people are vulnerable to falling back into poverty due to high inflation, the global economic crisis, natural disasters and epidemics. These are the risks, old and new that Vietnam has to face in order to overcome poverty.

The ‘Looking forward: Challenges to Poverty Reduction in Vietnam’ report updates the results of the participatory poverty monitoring in rural communities project from 2007 to 2011. This has been a difficult time for poverty reduction in Vietnam. High inflation, the global financial crisis and economic recession, natural disasters and epidemics have affected the lives of everybody in the country, particularly poor people. Nevertheless, the poverty rate continues to decline. Major government investments have provided poor people with improved infrastructure, increased economic opportunities, more non-agricultural jobs, and better housing, educational, health and agricultural extension services. 55 percent of households in the research felt that their lives have improved over the last five years.
However, challenges still remain. Poverty reduction rates are uneven in rural areas. Findings from the report show that nearly two in five people in the monitoring sites do not see or are not sure of any changes while nine percent even felt that their lives had got worse in the last five years. Chronic poverty is increasingly concentrated, especially in ethnic minority areas; this is shown while comparing multidimensional poverty criteria between ethnic minority groups with the Kinh group. Despite the government’s poverty reduction efforts, findings from the monitoring sites shows alarming figures - 16 percent of families are still short of food up to nearly five months a year, one in four children under age five are malnourished, 42 percent of surveyed households still have no access to clean water, and four in five families still live without latrines or temporary latrines. A significant number of people are vulnerable to falling back into poverty due to high inflation, the global economic crisis, natural disasters and epidemics. These are the risks, old and new that Vietnam has to face in order to overcome poverty.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Oxfam in Vietnam on May 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/10/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 
Looking forward: Challenges to PovertyReduction in Vietnam
Summary of Findings from Rural Poverty Monitoring Projects2007-2011
Thuan Hoa (Vi Xuyen District, Ha Giang Province)Ban Lien (Bac Ha District, Lao Cai Province)Thanh Xuong (Dien Bien District, Dien BienProvince)Luong Minh (Tuong Duong District, Nghe AnProvince)Duc Huong (Vu Quang District, Ha Tinh Province)Xy (Huong Hoa District, Quang Tri Province)Cu Hue (Eakar District, Dak Lak Province)Phuoc Dai (Bac Ai District, Ninh Thuan Province)Phuoc Thanh (Bac Ai District, Ninh Thuan Province)Thuan Hoa (Cau Ngang District, Tra Vinh Province)
Introduction
This paper summarizes the findings of the Synthesis Report of the “Participatory PovertyMonitoring in Rural Communities in Vietnam (2007-2011)” project, implemented by Oxfamand ActionAid. The project started in 2007, shortly after Vietnam’s accession to the WorldTrade Organization (WTO). WTO membership was acknowledged to bring both benefits andopportunities, as well as risks and challenges, especially for poor and vulnerable communitiesand people.In this context, Oxfam and ActionAid, each with many years of supporting the poorest andmost marginalized groups in Vietnam, selected monitoring sites in nine rural and three urbanlocations across various regions in Vietnam to carry out a longitudinal poverty monitoring.Monitoring sites were chosen to represent typical livelihoods and to reflect the diversity of conditions across the country. Communities were chosen to reflect the great diversity of ruralVietnam considering geographical and ethnic diversity, remoteness and the overall povertyoutlook. It included communes with good poverty reduction results, as well as someextremely poor communes with poverty rates above 70 percent. Surveys were conductedannually and presented in a series of annual reports. Data used in this report comes from thepanel sample of 600 households. Information was annually collected from more than 500 in-depth interviews, 190 group discussions involving about 1,000 villagers (adults and children),and commune and village officials.
The Synthesis Report summarizing findings for the period 2007-2011 and the annual reports in Englishand Vietnamese can be downloaded fromhttp://oxfaminvietnam.wordpress.com/resourcesbao-cao/  
 
2 |
Summary of findings from Rural Poverty Monitoring Project 2007-2011
 
The monitoring period from 2007 to 2011 has been a difficult time for poverty reduction inVietnam. High inflation, the global financial crisis and economic recession, natural disasters and epidemics have affected the lives of everybody in Vietnam, particularly poor people.Nevertheless, the poverty rate continues to decline. Major government investments have provided poor people with improved infrastructure, increased economic opportunities, more nonagricultural jobs, and better housing, educational, health and agricultural extension services. The positive changes are observed inthe 600 sampled households with 55 percent feeling that their liveshave improved over the last five years. There are still challengesahead despite a number of the government’s reforms from 2007  promoting further economic development and lifting the remaining  poor households out of poverty. Nearly 40 percent of people in themonitoring sites do not see or are not sure of any changes while nine percent even felt that their lives had got "worse" in the last five years.
Expanding Choices, Pathways Out of Poverty
Over the past years, poor farmers have tried a number of strategies to lift their families out of poverty,combining government support with their own - not all of them are fully successful.
 
Diversify labour divisionstrategies
: Effective householdlabour division strategies varybetween communes, villages andhouseholds, and often involve acombination of 
agricultural
and
non-agricultural
employment (andeducation) between familymembers
.
Crop diversification andintensive farming, while makingoptimal use of land potentials, arekey to improving productivity. Non-agricultural jobs can generate higher returns for the labourer, although itoften requires migrating. Labour opportunities and wages of bothmen and women have graduallyincreased over the past five years. Some prefer jobs locally and some migrate to other provinces;working away from home is less common in mountainous and ethnic minority areas. Local casual jobs are usually unstable and irregular so incomes are normally too low for people to save. Bycontrast, remittances from men and women working away from home contribute remarkably toincreasing household income. However, in the last few years, their savings and remittances reduceddue to the increased of living cost in urban areas and unmatched increases in wages.
 
 
Diversified intensive commodity production and livestock breeding:
Diversifying and combiningshort-term and long-term crops such as growing rice and tea/vegetables, or maize and coffee.Diversification helps households manage risk and increases the effective use of labour and land inmountainous areas, it also increases income and crop yields by introducing new varieties andfarming techniques in low land communities. Accumulation from livestock helps households invest inbuilding houses, purchasing property, expanding productive land, and investing in children’seducation. However, the profit rate from cattle breeding is low (buffalos and cows only give birthonce a year), and is subject to risks due to adverse weather and diseases.
 
Expanding productive land
: In northern mountainous and ethnic minority areas, many householdstry to expand to small terraced water-fed fields. In other areas, households rent land from statefarms. Land consolidation and exchange has advanced in some areas, but many constraints remain.In all of this, having labour resource in the household is crucial.
 
Government support policies
have assisted households in increasing their wellbeing. In particular,policies in relation to construction of housing, concessional loans, children with disabilities, andsocial assistance have helped poor people relieve difficulties in their lives.
55 percent feeltheir lives haveimproved
 
while ninepercent feel their lives have gotworse
 
Youth, middle-aged
Agricultural
 
employment
 
EducationNon-agriculturalemployment
Infrastructure improvement Market, employment opportunities
 
 
H 
Middle-aged, elderly Children,young
 
3 |
Summary of findings from Rural Poverty Monitoring Project 2007-2011
 
 
Invest in education
for the next generation this is seen as crucial towards longer-term improvedhousehold wellbeing. However, these investments have often not yet yielded positive impact. In fact,in the short term, the cost of education is burdening the household economy. Many households areborrowing to cover the cost of secondary and higher education. In some places, young graduatescannot find suitable graduate level jobs and fall back on farming or casual work.
Howlifehaschanged2007-2011
 
Escaping from poverty by improving production techniques
 Key events showing the changes in the last five year of the family of Mr.
 Đ
.T.M’s from Huong TanVillage, Duc Huong Commune (Vu Quang, Ha Tinh)
Households gradually accumulating from livestock 
Key events showing the changes in the last five year of Tay ethnic family of Ms L.T.X., from Doi 1Village, Ban Lien Commune (Bac Ha, Lao Cai) escaped from poverty with buffalo and pig farming
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Wifeillness Father illness ChildrenillnessHead of Farmers’ Association Branch, tookpart in training coursesEffective application of peanut farmingtechniques andinvestment, profit of 20millionContinuedapplyingadvancedtechniques andleased moreland, profit of 50million. Investedin maizeRented moreland, bought amilling machine(estimated profitof 80 million)Relativelivingstandards
Extremelypoor Poor  AverageWell-off 
GetsmarriedHas babyBorrows moneyfrom Social PolicyBank to buy abuffalo andpigletsUses profits frompigs to buytea-planting landMoves to a new houseFour pig litterssold Uses 9 million dong fromland compensation to buywet rice land and clear debtWet rice landaffected byroadconstruction Another buffalowas delivered A new buffalowas delivered
Relativelivingstandards Average
 
Poor 
 
Very poor 
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->