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Published by Aderaw Gashayie

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Published by: Aderaw Gashayie on May 30, 2012
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his supplement focuses on operations
 After reading this supplement, you should 
scheduling, which involves assigning jobsto
be ableto:
workstations or employees to jobs for speci-fied time periods. Effective scheduling helps man-
Define new performance measures(beyondagers achieve the full potential of theisupplyflow time and past due) for evaluatingachains. Chapter 14, “Operations Planningandschedule.Scheduling,” covers the basics of scheduling— Gantt
Describe the decision rules (beyondFCFScharts, workforce scheduling, two rules (FCFSandand EDD) to sequence jobs.EDD) for sequencing work at a singleworkstation,
Determine schedules for single andand two commonly used performancemeasuresmultipleworkstations.(flow time and past due). Here we deepenyour understanding with additional performancemea-sures and priority sequencing rules, a discussion of scheduling multiple workstations, and a discussionof scheduling a two-station flowshop.my
lab and the Companion Websiteat
contain many tools, activities, andresourcesdesigned for thissupplement.
Scheduling Service andManufacturing
A type of scheduling in which jobsareassigned to workstations or employeesare assigned to jobs for specified timeThe scheduling techniques we discuss in this supplement cut across the various process periods.types found in services and manufacturing. Many service firms are characterized bya
 front-office process
with high customer contact, divergent work flows,customization,and, consequently, a complex scheduling environment. Often customer demandsaredifficult to predict, which puts a high premium on scheduling employees to handlethevaried needs of customers. At the other extreme in the service industry,a
back-office process
has low customer involvement, uses more line work flows, and providesstan-dardized services. Inanimate objects are processed; these processes take on the appear-ance of manufacturing processes.Manufacturing processes also benefit from operations scheduling techniques.Our discussion of the operations scheduling techniques in this supplement hasapplicationfor job, batch, and line processes in services as well as in manufacturing. Schedulesfor continuous processes can be developedwith
linear programming 
(see Supplement E,“Linear Programming”). Although the scheduling techniques in this chapter  providesome structure to the selection of good schedules, many alternatives typically need to beevaluated. We begin by looking at the performance measures managers use toselectgood schedules.
Performance Measures
We already covered two important performance measures in Chapter 14, “OperationsPlanning andScheduling.”
 Flow time
is the time a job spends in the service omanufactur-ing system, and
 past due
(tardiness) is the amount of time by which a job missed itsduedate. In this regard, a
is the object receiving service or being manufactured. For example,a job may be a customer waiting for service at a state licensing bureau or it may be a batchof pistons waiting for a manufacturing process. These two performance measures can beinsufficient, depending on the competitive priorities of a process. Additional performancemeasures follow:
The total amount of time required to complete a group of jobs is calledmakespan
. Minimizing makespan supports the competitive priorities of cost(lower inventory) and time (deliveryspeed).The total amount of time required tocomplete a
of jobs.Makespan = Time of completion of last job - Starting time of the first job
Total Inventory.
This performance measure is used to measure the effectivness of schedules for manufacturing processes. The sumof 
 scheduled receipts
is the
.The sum of scheduled receipts and on-Total inventory = Scheduled receipts for all items + On-hand inventories of allitemshandinventories.Minimizing total inventory supports the competitive priority of cost (inventoryhold-ing costs).
The degree to which equipment, space, or the workforce is currently beingused, measured as the ratio of the average output rate to maximumcapacity.Maximizing the utilization of a process supports the competitive priority of cost(slack capacity).These performance measures often are interrelated. For example,minimizingthe average flow time tends to increase utilization. Minimizing the makespan for agroupof jobs tends to increase utilization. Understanding how flow time, makespan, past due,and utilization interact can make the selection of good scheduleseasier.
Operations schedules are short-term plans designed to implement the sales and opera-tions plan. Often, several jobs must be processed at one or more workstations.Typically,a variety of tasks can be performed at each workstation. If schedules are notcarefully planned to avoid bottlenecks, waiting lines may develop. For example, Figure J.1depicts
the complexity of scheduling a manufacturing process. When a job order is receivedfor a part, the raw materials are collected and the batch is moved to its first operation. Thecolored arrows show that jobs follow different routes through the manufacturing process, depending on the product being made. At each workstation, the next job to process is a decision because the arrival rate of jobs at a workstation often differs fromthe processing rate of the jobs at a workstation, thereby creating a waiting line. In addi-tion, new jobs can enter the process at any time, thereby creating a dynamicenviron-ment. Such complexity puts pressure on managers to develop scheduling proceduresthat will handle the workloadefficiently.In this section, we focus on scheduling approaches used in two environments: (1)diver-gent flow processes and (2) line flow processes. A manufacturer's operation with divergentflows is often called a
, which specializes in low- to medium-volume productionandutilizes
 processes. The
 front office
would be the equivalent for a service job shop provider. Jobs in divergent flow processes are difficult to schedule because of the variabilityA manufacturer's operation thatspecializesin job routings and the continual introduction of new jobs to be processed. Figure J.1depictsin low- to medium-volume productionanda manufacturer’s job shop. A manufacturer's operation with line flows is often calleda
utilizes job or batch processes.
, which specializes in medium- to high-volume production andutilizes
or flow shop
continuous flow
 processes. The
back office
would be the equivalent for a service provider.A manufacturer's operationthatTasks are easier to schedule because the jobs have a common flow pattern through thesys-specializes in medium- to high-volumetem. Nonetheless, scheduling mistakes can be costly in either situation. production and utilizes line or continuous
Job Shop Sequencing
flow processes.Just as many schedules are feasible for a specific group of jobs at a particular set of workstations,numerous methods can be used to generate schedules. They range fromstraightforwardmanual methods, such as manipulating Gantt charts, to sophisticated computer modelsfor developing optimal schedules. One way to generate schedules in job shops is byusing
 priority sequencing rules
, which allows the schedule for a workstation to evolve over a periodof time. The decision about which job to process next is made with simple priorityruleswhenever the workstation becomes available for further processing. One advantage of thismethod is that last-minute information on operating conditions can be incorporatedintothe schedule as itevolves.We already covered two important sequencing rules in Chapter 14, “OperationsPlanningand Scheduling.”The
 first-come, first-served (FCFS)
rule gives the job arriving at theworkstationfirst the highest priority.The
earliest due date (EDD)
rule gives the job with the earliest due date based on assigned due dates the highest priority. Such rules can be applied by a worker or 
Diagram of a Manufacturing JobShop Process
Batch of partsWorkstation

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