Scheduling Service andManufacturing
A type of scheduling in which jobsareassigned to workstations or employeesare assigned to jobs for specified timeThe scheduling techniques we discuss in this supplement cut across the various process periods.types found in services and manufacturing. Many service firms are characterized bya
with high customer contact, divergent work flows,customization,and, consequently, a complex scheduling environment. Often customer demandsaredifficult to predict, which puts a high premium on scheduling employees to handlethevaried needs of customers. At the other extreme in the service industry,a
has low customer involvement, uses more line work flows, and providesstan-dardized services. Inanimate objects are processed; these processes take on the appear-ance of manufacturing processes.Manufacturing processes also benefit from operations scheduling techniques.Our discussion of the operations scheduling techniques in this supplement hasapplicationfor job, batch, and line processes in services as well as in manufacturing. Schedulesfor continuous processes can be developedwith
(see Supplement E,“Linear Programming”). Although the scheduling techniques in this chapter providesome structure to the selection of good schedules, many alternatives typically need to beevaluated. We begin by looking at the performance measures managers use toselectgood schedules.
We already covered two important performance measures in Chapter 14, “OperationsPlanning andScheduling.”
is the time a job spends in the service or manufactur-ing system, and
(tardiness) is the amount of time by which a job missed itsduedate. In this regard, a
is the object receiving service or being manufactured. For example,a job may be a customer waiting for service at a state licensing bureau or it may be a batchof pistons waiting for a manufacturing process. These two performance measures can beinsufficient, depending on the competitive priorities of a process. Additional performancemeasures follow:
The total amount of time required to complete a group of jobs is calledmakespan
. Minimizing makespan supports the competitive priorities of cost(lower inventory) and time (deliveryspeed).The total amount of time required tocomplete a
of jobs.Makespan = Time of completion of last job - Starting time of the first job
This performance measure is used to measure the effectivness of schedules for manufacturing processes. The sumof
.The sum of scheduled receipts and on-Total inventory = Scheduled receipts for all items + On-hand inventories of allitemshandinventories.Minimizing total inventory supports the competitive priority of cost (inventoryhold-ing costs).
The degree to which equipment, space, or the workforce is currently beingused, measured as the ratio of the average output rate to maximumcapacity.Maximizing the utilization of a process supports the competitive priority of cost(slack capacity).These performance measures often are interrelated. For example,minimizingthe average flow time tends to increase utilization. Minimizing the makespan for agroupof jobs tends to increase utilization. Understanding how flow time, makespan, past due,and utilization interact can make the selection of good scheduleseasier.
Operations schedules are short-term plans designed to implement the sales and opera-tions plan. Often, several jobs must be processed at one or more workstations.Typically,a variety of tasks can be performed at each workstation. If schedules are notcarefully planned to avoid bottlenecks, waiting lines may develop. For example, Figure J.1depicts