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Mumbai Water Supply Management

Mumbai Water Supply Management

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Published by Neel Mehta

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Published by: Neel Mehta on May 30, 2012
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10/27/2012

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ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT MUMBAI WATERSUPPLY MANAGEMENT
BRIHANMUMBAI MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
MUMBAI WATER SUPPLY PROJECT
Mumbai city, with a population of over 13 million, isone of the largest megacities in the world. Water supply forMumbai city is derived from both lake and river sources,through gravity and pumped schemes. Water supplied bygravity is drawn from lake sources on the island, as well asfrom the mainland, located between 100 kms. to 160 kms.from the city. These are the Vaitarna, Tansa, upperVaitarna, Vehar, Tulsi and Powai. The pumped water source is from river Bhatsa, 65 kmsfrom the city. The present supply to the city is 2900 Mld.Pumping schemes were taken up, after the completion of the schemes with lake sources in 1972.Based on a master plan for integrated development of water supply and sewerage facilities, Mumbai water supplyproject is planned to be developed in 3 phases of 455 Mldcapacity each, to be drawn from river Bhatsa. The schemeinvolved construction of a weir at Pise for impounding waterreleased from Bhatsa dam. Typically, each phase involvesabstraction of raw water from a common intake on the riverat Pise, pre-chlorinating it and pumping it to Panjrapur, 9 kmaway for treatment. Thereafter treated water is pumped toa master balancing reservoir, 1 km away on Yewai hill. A
 
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT MUMBAI WATERSUPPLY MANAGEMENT
1919 MLD treatment plant for the treatment of water fromthe lakes and partly from the river is located at Bhandup.From there, water flows by gravity, to the city. Conveyanceof water is by means of large mild steel transmission mainof sizes ranging from 2210 mm to 3000 mm. Whereconveyance system crosses the creek, tunnels in rock isprovided. Instrumentation and telemetry facilities are alsobeing provided for monitoring of the complex system.
THE LAKES OF MUMBAI AND THEIRCONTRIBUTION TOWARDS WATER SUPPL
For Mumbai’s population of 13 million people, water isthe most precious commodity. The metropolis cannot takeits first step in the morning and end the day without it. Thewater supply for Mumbai which comes from six lakes withinMumbai’s precincts has grown over the last 130 years. These six lakes are being Tansa, Bhatsa, Vaitarna, Tulsi, Upper Vaitarna and Powai. The system is supported byreservoirs, storages, pipes and taps till they reach thecitizens. The city in fact, is inundated with creeks and bays.
 
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT MUMBAI WATERSUPPLY MANAGEMENT
 Two of these lakes are within the Sanjay Gandhi NationalPark, the only wildlife sanctuary within city limits. Powai isbang in the middle of an industrial zone today. Tansa,Vaitarna and Upper Vaitarna which lie on the outskirts of thecity are likely to be seen only while travelling on outstation-bound trains, when it crosses the bridges over these lakes.It was in 1856 that the first lake – Vihar was earmarkedto be used as a source of water supply by Captain Crawfordof the Engineers in a report to John Lord Elphinstone. Theinitial supply was just 32 million litres a day. The cost: Rs 65lakh. The supply has been increased every now and then.Vihar is located at the origin of the Mithi river and threeearthen dams and the overflow section in stone masonryare built here. The plan for Tulsi lake was laid in 1872-79 bydamming and redirecting river Tasso into Vihar lake at acost of Rs 40 lakh. Tulsi Dam was built over a hundred yearsago and the forest surrounding it acts as a catchment area. These two lakes can be visited with special permission only.In 1884, Tulsi and Vihar waters were still insufficient,so the Tansa water works was sanctioned. It has one of thelargest masonry dams in Asia and was designed by Major Tulloch in 1872. It was completed in 1892 and supplies 410million litres daily to the city.Powai was commissioned when Tansa work wasunderway and a water famine seemed imminent. Thissource was developed over four stages and the damcelebrated its centenary year in 1991-92. The Powai valleyscheme on the Mithi River was sanctioned as a

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