recession, are likely to rebound. However, the recent
accreditation of additional schools outside the United
States will increase the supply of companion-animal
veterinarians and could place downward pressure onsalaries if the demand for pet services does not
increase over time.
Veterinarians in the companion-animal sector are
increasingly pursuing specialized training in elds
such as surgery, oncology, and orthopedic medicine,due to growing demand for specialized services, the potential for higher earnings, and intellectual interest
in specialty elds. The requirements for specialtycertication are set by independent Boards, whichoften require faculty advisers and two to four years of training. However, most veterinary schools do not
have additional manpower to support that training, sospecialty training draws resources away from thecentral obligation of veterinary schools to educate
entry-level Doctors of Veterinary Medicine (DVMs).
Furthermore, as veterinary school curricula havefocused increasingly on companion animal care,subjects such as infectious diseases, public health, andenvironmental toxicology—which are important for careers in industry or public practice—have received
less emphasis. The trend for a narrower spectrum of veterinary training threatens the profession’s ability to
maintain robust research programs and develop
high-quality scientic investigators who can lead the
cross-disciplinary and inter-professional studies thatwill advance basic veterinary knowledge in all sectorsof the profession, including progress in companion-
animal medicine. If veterinary colleges are to besuccessful in meeting all of society’s demands, they
need a clearer picture of the demand for companion-
animal services in particular, and to nd a way tosupport training in companion-animal specialties.
Finding realistic strategies for meeting companion-animal veterinary medical workforce needs willrequire the collaboration of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, AmericanAnimal Hospital Association, and AmericanVeterinary Medical Association. Building such astrategy requires reliable national data on consumer demand for companion-animal care, the economicsof private practice, the role of veterinary techniciansin extending companion-animal care, and theimplications for the profession of growth inaccredited and non-accredited veterinary schoolsboth inside and outside the United States.
Addressing current concerns will require thatveterinary academe increase its commitment toresearch, developing future faculty, and encour-aging current faculty to work across disciplinaryand professional boundaries. The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges is well-positioned to take on this challenge.
Supply and Demand in the Veterinary MedicalWorkforce
The report’s authoring committee investigated the
supply and demand of veterinarians in the various
sectors of veterinary medicine. Although there are
no widespread shortages of veterinarians overall,
some sectors are struggling to nd enough well-qualied candidates, even when offering highsalaries. For example, the industrial sector is facing
a shortage of candidates with advanced training intopics such as biochemistry, toxicology, or pathology;and veterinary colleges are in need of researchfaculty with the grant-writing skills to leverage
funding for their programs. The committee concluded
that opportunities for highly trained veterinarians inindustry and research are growing, with a clear
shortage in the supply of qualied applicants to llthese jobs. These shortages could be addressed bymentoring veterinary students and nding support totrain future veterinarians to meet the requirementsfor these positions.In other sectors, for example veterinary practice in
many rural areas, veterinary expertise salaries are too
low to attract applicants despite needs. Here, appropri
-ately-paid employment opportunities could be created
by rethinking how veterinary services are provided.
For example, a practice could employ several veteri-nary technicians under the supervision of one
veterinarian to expand veterinary care (see Box 1).The public sector has unlled positions for veteri
-narians who have specialized training in epidemiology,food safety, wildlife and ecosystem health, and public
health. Jobs in these elds typically offer salaries much
lower than those in the private sector, and so cannot
attract the top candidates. However, public-sector
veterinarians are essential for maintaining the safety of foods of animal origin and controlling diseases of
wildlife and livestock. An insufcient workforce of
public-practice veterinarians places at risk the health
of American citizens, the well-being of the nation’sfood-animal industry, and the health of U.S. wildliferesources and the U.S. economy.
veterinary medicine workforce
consists of about 92,000 professionals, a workforce one-tenththe size of the human medical profession. There are28 U.S. veterinary schools and colleges that produceabout 2500 graduates with the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) each year.