Ingredients Examples ofIngredientFunctions
Alcoholethoxylatel-Lower the surface tension of wash water,thereby increase the wetting and spreadingproperties of water.-By reducing the surface tension water,surfactants improve the cleaning performance byenabling the solution to wet a surface (forexample clothes) quickly and effectively, andhence the dirt can be readily loosened andremoved. Surface active agents also emulsify oilysoils and keep them suspended and dispersed sothey do not settle back on the surface.Builders
Sodium citrate-Soften water by deactivating the hardnessminerals (metal ions such as calcium andmagnesium). The softening process is followed bytwo processes - one is sequestration (holdingmetal ions in solution) and another isprecipitation (removing metal ions from solutionas insoluble materials).-In addition to softening, builders also provide adesirable level of alkalinity (increase pH) thatimproves cleaning performance. They also workas buffer to maintain suitable alkalinity in washwater.-Help emulsify oily and greasy soil by breaking itup into small parts. Different builders in realitypeptize or suspend loosened dirt and keep themfrom settling back on the cleaned surface.Fillers
Kaolin-Provide moderate alkalinity and building effectas well as mildness to laundry bar formulation.-Helps harden the final bar as a consequence of the hydrates they form.Binders
Starch-Hold solid components together in the finalproduct.Hardeners
-To reduce bar plasticity, in particular with LASformulations.Alkalinityadjusters
-Contribute the pH buffering effect and reduceskin irritation due to higher alkalinity.