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Solar Cells Technology 2

Solar Cells Technology 2

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Published by Eeswar Reddy

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Published by: Eeswar Reddy on May 31, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Solar Cell Technology 
Current State of the Art 
Gerald Gourdin
Introduction to Green ChemistryFall 2007
Where are we headed?
1839: Photovoltaic effect was first recognized by French physicistAlexandre-Edmond Becquerel.
1883: First solar cell was built by Charles Fritts, who coated thesemiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions (1% efficient).
1946: Russell Ohl patented the modern solar cell
1954: Modern age of solar power technology arrives - Bell Laboratories,experimenting with semiconductors, accidentally found that silicon dopedwith certain impurities was very sensitive to light.
The solar cell or photovoltaic cell fulfills two fundamental functions:
Photogeneration of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a light-absorbingmaterial
Separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact to transmit electricity
Photon is absorbed and energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice
Usually this electron is in valence band, tightly bound in covalent bonds.
Energy given by the photon “excites” it into the conduction band
Covalent bond now has one fewer electron (hole).
Bonded electrons of neighboring atoms can move into the ‘hole’, leaving another holebehind – hole can propagate through lattice.
Free electrons flow through the material to produce electricity.
Positive charges (holes) flow in opposite direction.
Photon Absorption 
Different PV materials have differentband gap energies.
Photons with energy equal to the bandgap energy are absorbed to createfree electrons.
Photons with less energy than theband gap energy pass through thematerial
Photons absorption creates mobile electron-hole pairs

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