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The Need of Waste Treatment From Fish Processing Plant in Vietnam

The Need of Waste Treatment From Fish Processing Plant in Vietnam

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Published by Le Tuan Son

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Published by: Le Tuan Son on May 31, 2012
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The need of waste treatment from fishprocessing plant in Vietnam
Vietnam the rank of fifth largest producer of fishery products globally, after China, India,Indonesia and the Philippines, and accounted 19.3 percent of agriculture, fish and forest
 product’s contribution in 2006
[1].Vietnam produced a total of 3,695.9 thousand metric tons (TMT) of aquatic products in2006. Of this amount, 2,001.7 TMT or 54.2% was wild-caught (marine and inland) and1,694.3 TMT or 45.8% was farm-raised [1,3,5,6].
Fig. 1. Fishery production and export turnover in 1991
2006 [7].
In 2008, the total production of both capture fisheries and aquaculture in Vietnam was4.85 million tons, with exports valuing about 4.51 billion USD.Through the fish processing plant, fish products are ready for domestic and overseamarkets. To make the goods, fish wastes are generated, which include the blood (runningout with the drain) and viscera, heads, tails and bones. Sources of effluent from fishprocessing include the handling and storage of raw fish prior to processing, fluming of fish and product around the plant, defrosting, gutting, scaling, portioning and filleting of fish and the washing of fish products. Effluent streams generated from seafoodprocessing contain high loads of organic matter due to the presence of oils, proteins andsuspended solids. They can also contain high levels of phosphates and nitrates.
Some of them can be reutilized for fishmeal, and others, which have not been utilizedefficiently, as untreated fish waste is directly disposed to the river or land field. If the effluent streams are discharged without treatment into water bodies, the pollutantsthey contain can cause eutrophication and oxygen depletion. In addition, fish processingindustries have been known to pollute nearby beaches and shores by releasing wastewatercontaining oils. Since oil floats on water, it can end up on the surrounding coastline.Wastewater from seafood-processing operations can be very high in biochemical oxygendemand (BOD), fat, oil and grease (FOG), and nitrogen content. Literature data forseafood processing operations showed a BOD production of 1
72.5 kg of BOD per ton of product. White fish filleting processes typically produce 12.5
37.5 kg of BOD for everyton of product [4].
Table 1.
Wastewater characteristics of various species [4].According to the research of Khanh et al (2010), there are 568 processing seafood plantsin Vietnam; many of them produce products (Shrimp, Pangasius, Tuna, Mollusk, Crab,Tilapia, etc). Chemical concentrations (mainly organic matters) from the processing arehigher than that of Vietnam technical regulation on water quality (with maximum of 88%of T-P exceeding the standard) (Table 2).
Table 2. Characteristics of water generated from seafood plants in Vietnam [2].Parameters AverageExceed the Vietnam technicalregulation on water quality (%)Temperature (
C) 17.30
29.80 -pH 5.69
9.06 3.85TSS (mg/l) 4
2,684.20 12T-N (mg/l) - 87T-P (mg/l) 13.40 88COD (mg/l) 300
3,735 73BOD
(mg/l) 64
2,365.20 83
 Environmental survey at 52 water samples of 26 plants.
In 2005, Vietnam published the environmental law (such as National technical regulationon water quality) that enforces the treatment of sewage before discharging into
environment. Decision No. 64/2003/QĐ
-TTg of Prime Minister about the plan of 
 polluted plant’s treatment, requires seafood companies to reduce the generation of large
amounts of fish waste.Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for efficient treatment to remove the organicload from the fish waste.
Vietnam is a big country for fisheries sector and fish products. Although this field can
contribute the huge amount of money for nation’s development, fish waste is generated
and has bad affect to the received environment. Some regulation have been in action inorder to force the fish processing companies to treat waste before discharging, otherwise,these companies have to close. Thus, the need of finding effective way to solve fish wastegenerated from processing.Recently, biological treatment is one of the most widely used methods for partial orcomplete mineralization of biologically degradable substances in both wastewaters andwastes. Biodegradation is considered to be the most suitable alternative to treat fisherieswaste and realize a market for such a waste as fertilizer.
Email: letuanson1987@gmail.com

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