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Fashion Marketing

Fashion Marketing

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Published by Prashant Singh

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Published by: Prashant Singh on May 31, 2012
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Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management
Emerald Article: Fashion marketing to women in Kazakhstan
Patrick Low, Ina Freeman
Article information:
To cite this document: Patrick Low, Ina Freeman, (2007),"Fashion marketing to women in Kazakhstan", Journal of Fashion Marketingand Management, Vol. 11 Iss: 1 pp. 41 - 55Permanent link to this document:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13612020710734391Downloaded on: 15-05-2012References: This document contains references to 35 other documentsTo copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.comThis document has been downloaded 3079 times.Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AT NEW DELHI
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Fashion marketing to women inKazakhstan
Patrick Low
University of South Australia, Singapore, and 
Ina Freeman
 Mississippi Valley State University, Itta Bena, Mississippi, USA
– The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer behavior regarding women’s decisionsconcerning fashion in the emerging marketing of Kazakhstan.
– Literature review formed the basis of the questions asked toseveral focus groups and in-depth interviews of 48 Kazakhs representing the average age of Kazakhstan. The approach of the paper is exploratory as there is not a lot of research concerning theKazakhstani marketplace.
Kazakhstani women are becoming aware of their rights to choose clothing and location of purchase. They expect to be treated with respect. The women are value conscious, thinking brandnames enhance the value of clothing and will shop sales regardless of the actual discount. Kazakhstaniwomen are extremely fashion conscious and look to the media for current fashions. They are wary of anything coming out of China. There are five market segments into which these women can bedivided.
Research limitations/implications
– The study was done in Almaty and may not reflect peopleoutside urban Kazakhstan.
Practical implications
– Kazakhstan is opening as a marketplace. In order to understand how tomarket in Kazakhstan, firms must understand what is wanted and this paper begins this exploration.
This market is unexplored both academically and by many clothingmanufacturers. This market is opening and thus information concerning the marketplace is necessary.
Consumer behavior, Consumer research, Women, Kazakhstan, Fashion,Market segmentation
Paper type
Research paper
The setting of this paper is Kazakhstan, one of the Commonwealth of IndependentStates (CIS), a grouping of independent states formerly dominated by the USSR, and iscomprised of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova,Republic of Georgia, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, andUzbekistan. It is located in Central Asia with an area approximately 28 percent the sizeof the USA but with only slightly more than 5 percent of the population (estimated in July 2005 at 15,185,844
CIA Factbook,
2005)). Upon the liberation of Kazakhstan,Russia withdrew fiscal, social, and other forms of support, leaving the nation to find itsown way in the world after over 100 years of Russian occupation and over 70 years of 
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
Elmira Ibrayeva assisted as interpreter and group facilitator.
Fashionmarketing inKazakhstan
 Journal of Fashion Marketing andManagementVol. 11 No. 1, 2007pp. 41-55
Emerald Group Publishing Limited1361-2026DOI 10.1108/13612020710734391
indoctrination that portrayed the western world negatively. Today, Kazakhstan is acountry of contradictions: governmental wealth from huge oil reserves in the westernregions yet government acceptance of charitable goods and services from other nationswho are concerned about average income of approximately $8,000 USD per year in aneconomy where rents on new apartments can be as high as $3,000 USD per month.This paper identifies the several market segments within the target market of primarily women in the emerging economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Womencomprise 51.4 percent of Kazakhstan’s population (Romanenko, 2004, p. 2) representinga significant market. To define the segments, the following questions were posed tofocus groups.Discussion questions asked of the women in the focus groups included but were notlimited to:
Who do you think influences your clothing or fashion purchases?(Spouses/peers/parents/reference groups/magazines/television).
What is the modality of your purchase, i.e. the internet, in-person, catalogue, etc.?
How often do you buy?
Are your clothing purchases affected by your moods and emotions?
Who accompanies you to you buy your clothes?
How do brand names affect your clothes’ or fashion purchases?
How do retailers affect your clothes’ or fashion purchases?
What is your perception of clothes made outside Kazakhstan?
How do promotions or sales affect your buying decisions?
Are you influenced by the clothes celebrities wear?We focus upon how fashion is marketed to women and what the results of thesepolicies are, with particular emphasis upon consumer behaviour trends, marketsegmentation, and how women’s increased educational levels influence consumptionpatterns.This research adds value to the area of marketing in an emerging market due to theincreasing number of women with increased disposable income (Ibrayeva and Low,2004). In recognizing women as key to the household financial decisions, marketersneed to reach out and market to women, especially working women. One women in thisstudy’s focus group stated fashion marketing entailed “things that affect the hearts of women most of all!” (focus group participant).
Literature review
Previous studies have indicated women’s role in purchasing has been aided by theirincreasing role in household financial decision making (Pastore, 1998), a fact endorsingthe importance of fashion marketing to women. In fact, one American study shows thatwhile men shop, women actually buy (Pastore, 1998).In Kazakhstan, women in particular have not fared well since independence in 1991.Women’s wages in comparison to men’s wages were 58.1 percent in 1991 compared to48.1 percent in 2002 while the number of women involved in higher educationincreased by 8 percent. A slightly greater percentage of women than men have higheror tertiary education (1.26 women to men in 2001) yet women account for only 34

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