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CERN BE Newsletter May 2012

CERN BE Newsletter May 2012

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Published by Parvaneh
CERN Beams (BE) Department Newsletter No. 4 of May 2012
CERN Beams (BE) Department Newsletter No. 4 of May 2012

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Published by: Parvaneh on Jun 01, 2012
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Beams Department
The Newsletter does not necessarily reflect the views of the Beams DepartmentThe contributions solely reflect the views of their author(s)
Issue 4
May 2012
Inside This Issue
p. 1
 R. Billen
p. 2 
BE Newsletter Survey Outcome
 – The Editorial Team
 p. 3
HL-LHC motivations and challenges
 – Riccardo de Maria, BE-ABP-LCU 
 p. 5 
Véhicule de service ou privé ?
 p. 5
Tuning the LHC
 – Marek Gasior, BE-BI-QP
 p. 7
 – Marc Vanden Eynden, BE-CO-FE 
p. 8
 Safety Column
 BE Safety Unit 
p. 9
 Management Changes
 Dear Readers, Here’s issue number four of the BE Newsletter,the first one of the exciting year 2012. I suspect that you were all eagerly and impatiently awaitingthis copy and I take full responsibility for itslateness. Indeed, prior to this publication, I  preferred to launch a survey in order to find out if we are on the right track. For the success of the BE Newsletter, it is important to find its place inour scientific-technical world of communication,where we are already submerged withinformation. The content has to be sufficientlyinteresting but complimentary to the existingmedia.The survey took place last February and I would like to thank all of you for having taken the time tocontribute with your replies and suggestions. admit that I was happily surprised with theoutcome, which is positive and encouraging on allaspects. You will find the details further in thisnewsletter, which are based on the 144 received replies – a statistically significant and representative sample –. If I would make a convolution of all responses, I would come up with a statement as follows: “Theaverage BE Newsletter Reader reads with interest and curiosity about half of each newsletter; he isnot concerned about the language issue French or  English; he is quite comfortable with the balanceof the subjects and the level of complexity of thecontent, and in addition, he would like to write anarticle himself!”. Based on this, I can onlyconclude to pursue and go ahead with the publication series. Three issues are planned for 2012, so don’t be shy and contact your correspondent to submit your contributions! Ronny Billen Editor, BE Newsletter 
Next issue
The next issue will be published at theend of August. Contributions for thatissue should be received by the middleof August at the latest.Suggestions for contributions arealways most welcome: simply contactyour Correspondent (see last page).
2 Beams Department Newsletter Issue 4
BE Newsletter Survey Outcome
This article summarizes the result of the 144replies on our questionnaire that was launched lastFebruary. From the first question, it shows thateach of the newsletters is read by the majority of people, with only a minor decrease over thesubsequent issues.The fact that the authors are given the liberty towrite their articles in English or in French is not atall a blocking factor for the readers.In addition, a fair amount of the articles is read, asmost colleagues are curious to know what is goingon in other groups (or even in their own ;-).Overall, the topics of the articles are scientific,administrative or even very general. The balanceis not always obvious, so that’s why we asked.The result is quite acceptable as shown in thegraph below.The diversity of the 800+ members of thedepartment is vast, in terms of academicbackground and professional experience, so thequestion on complexity was legitimate. Again,our worries seem to be unjustified.The most encouraging result was that 56 people(i.e 39%) replied that they would actually like tocontribute to the BE Newsletter! It also showsfrom the constructive comments that the interest isreal. We have discussed your suggestions withthe correspondents and have retained the feasibleones.
The Editorial Team
3 Beams Department Newsletter Issue 4
HL-LHC motivations andchallenges
The High-Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC led byLucio Rossi and Oliver Bruning [1]) is the lastincarnation of the plans to extend the LHC discoverypotential by about a five-fold increase of the rate of collisions in the ATLAS and CMS detectors. Therate of collisions, and therefore the rate of interestingevents that the high energy physicists can study, areproportional to a quantity called luminosity, whichdepends on the characteristics of the colliding beamsand represents the key performance-figure of acollider.The time scale of the upgrade project is set by twomain arguments, namely the time to double thestatistics and the lifetime of magnets close to theinteraction points (IPs), which are essential for theefficiency of the collisions. The HL-LHC project isbased on the estimate that one of these twoconditions will occur not far after 2020. Hence, along shutdown, called LS3, is already foreseen in theCERN planning as illustrated in Fig. 1.
Figure 1. Scenario for the evolution of theluminosity, time needed to double the statisticalsignificance and proposed shutdowns.
How the luminosity of the LHC can be enhanced? Insimple terms this can be achieved by packing moreparticles in the overlapping volume of the twocolliding proton beams (called luminous region).The first strategy is to pack more particles in thesame volume, increasing the beam current and theso-called brightness of the beam. Therefore, moreintense and brighter beams need to be produced bythe LHC injector chain (a companion CERN projectthe LHC Injector Upgrade - LIU led by RolandGaroby and Malika Meddahi [2] - aims at exactlythat) and have to be preserved during the injection,acceleration and collision phase in the LHC ring.However the whole is challenged. The particles of the circulating beam generate strong electromagneticfields that interact again with the beam and stripclouds of electrons from the walls of the vacuumchamber, leading to instabilities that reduce thenumber of colliding particles and increase theamount of heat that needs to be extracted to maintainthe superconducting state of the magnets.Nevertheless one has to anticipate the futurelimitations, gain room above ultimate performanceand identify the most likely scenarios on whichconcentrate efforts as exemplified in Fig. 2.
Figure 2. Parameter space of the HL-LHC in termsof bunch intensity and emittance [3].
A complementary way to increase the luminosity isto reduce the volume of the luminous region only,while keeping the same beam current and brightnessby focusing the beam with magnetic lenses muchmore than today. To achieve that one needs toreplace the magnets close to the IP by larger-aperture magnets in analogy to what one would needfor building a more powerful magnifying glass. Theanalogy with optical systems has been recentlypushed forward, transforming this lens in a two-stage telescope, thanks to a novel technique(Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing Scheme [4],already tested last year Fig. 3), which allows verycompact luminous region by focusing kilometersaway from the IP.

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