3 Beams Department Newsletter Issue 4
HL-LHC motivations andchallenges
The High-Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC led byLucio Rossi and Oliver Bruning ) is the lastincarnation of the plans to extend the LHC discoverypotential by about a five-fold increase of the rate of collisions in the ATLAS and CMS detectors. Therate of collisions, and therefore the rate of interestingevents that the high energy physicists can study, areproportional to a quantity called luminosity, whichdepends on the characteristics of the colliding beamsand represents the key performance-figure of acollider.The time scale of the upgrade project is set by twomain arguments, namely the time to double thestatistics and the lifetime of magnets close to theinteraction points (IPs), which are essential for theefficiency of the collisions. The HL-LHC project isbased on the estimate that one of these twoconditions will occur not far after 2020. Hence, along shutdown, called LS3, is already foreseen in theCERN planning as illustrated in Fig. 1.
Figure 1. Scenario for the evolution of theluminosity, time needed to double the statisticalsignificance and proposed shutdowns.
How the luminosity of the LHC can be enhanced? Insimple terms this can be achieved by packing moreparticles in the overlapping volume of the twocolliding proton beams (called luminous region).The first strategy is to pack more particles in thesame volume, increasing the beam current and theso-called brightness of the beam. Therefore, moreintense and brighter beams need to be produced bythe LHC injector chain (a companion CERN projectthe LHC Injector Upgrade - LIU led by RolandGaroby and Malika Meddahi  - aims at exactlythat) and have to be preserved during the injection,acceleration and collision phase in the LHC ring.However the whole is challenged. The particles of the circulating beam generate strong electromagneticfields that interact again with the beam and stripclouds of electrons from the walls of the vacuumchamber, leading to instabilities that reduce thenumber of colliding particles and increase theamount of heat that needs to be extracted to maintainthe superconducting state of the magnets.Nevertheless one has to anticipate the futurelimitations, gain room above ultimate performanceand identify the most likely scenarios on whichconcentrate efforts as exemplified in Fig. 2.
Figure 2. Parameter space of the HL-LHC in termsof bunch intensity and emittance .
A complementary way to increase the luminosity isto reduce the volume of the luminous region only,while keeping the same beam current and brightnessby focusing the beam with magnetic lenses muchmore than today. To achieve that one needs toreplace the magnets close to the IP by larger-aperture magnets in analogy to what one would needfor building a more powerful magnifying glass. Theanalogy with optical systems has been recentlypushed forward, transforming this lens in a two-stage telescope, thanks to a novel technique(Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing Scheme ,already tested last year Fig. 3), which allows verycompact luminous region by focusing kilometersaway from the IP.