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HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE VOLUME 3

HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE VOLUME 3

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Published by grandmapolly
I wanted to give you this but had been saving for when I needed time, tomorrow and and the next two days I'll be doing the absolute minimum because Sunday is my 95th birthday and I' going to playing with my great-great grandchildren Lia (9) and Danny (6). Burying all your children is horrible but playing with your 4th generation babies is wonderful.
I wanted to give you this but had been saving for when I needed time, tomorrow and and the next two days I'll be doing the absolute minimum because Sunday is my 95th birthday and I' going to playing with my great-great grandchildren Lia (9) and Danny (6). Burying all your children is horrible but playing with your 4th generation babies is wonderful.

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Published by: grandmapolly on Jun 02, 2012
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03/28/2014

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HISTORYOFTHEDECLINEANDFALLOFTHEROMANEMPIREVOLUME3EdwardGibbon,Esq.WithnotesbytheRev.H.H.Milman1782(Written),1845(Revised)ChapterXXVII:CivilWars,ReignOfTheodosius.--PartI.DeathOfGratian.--RuinOfArianism.--St.Ambrose.--FirstCivilWar,AgainstMaximus.--Character,Administration,AndPenanceOfTheodosius.--DeathOfValentinianII.--SecondCivilWar,AgainstEugenius.--DeathOfTheodosius.ThefameofGratian,beforehehadaccomplishedthetwentiethyearofhisage,wasequaltothatofthemostcelebratedprinces.Hisgentleandamiabledispositionendearedhimtohisprivatefriends,thegracefulaffabilityofhismannersengagedtheaffectionofthepeople:themenofletters,whoenjoyedtheliberality,acknowledgedthetasteandeloquence,oftheirsovereign;hisvaloranddexterityinarmswereequallyapplaudedbythesoldiers;andtheclergyconsideredthehumblepietyofGratianasthefirstandmostusefulofhisvirtues.ThevictoryofColmarhaddeliveredtheWestfromaformidableinvasion;andthegratefulprovincesoftheEastascribedthemeritsofTheodosiustotheauthorofhisgreatness,andofthepublicsafety.Gratiansurvivedthosememorableeventsonlyfourorfiveyears;buthesurvivedhisreputation;and,beforehefellavictimtorebellion,hehadlost,inagreatmeasure,therespectandconfidenceoftheRomanworld.Theremarkablealterationofhischaracterorconductmaynotbeimputedtotheartsofflattery,whichhadbesiegedthesonofValentinianfromhisinfancy;nortotheheadstrongpassionswhichthethatgentleyouthappearstohaveescaped.AmoreattentiveviewofthelifeofGratianmayperhapssuggestthetruecauseofthedisappointmentofthepublichopes.Hisapparentvirtues,insteadofbeingthehardyproductionsofexperienceandadversity,weretheprematureandartificialfruitsofaroyaleducation.Theanxioustendernessofhisfatherwascontinuallyemployedtobestowonhimthoseadvantages,whichhemightperhapsesteemthemorehighly,ashehimselfhadbeendeprivedofthem;andthemostskilfulmastersofeveryscience,andofeveryart,hadlaboredtoformthemindandbodyoftheyoungprince.Theknowledgewhichtheypainfullycommunicatedwasdisplayedwithostentation,andcelebratedwithlavishpraise.Hissoftandtractabledispositionreceivedthefairimpressionoftheirjudiciousprecepts,andtheabsenceofpassionmighteasilybemistakenforthestrengthofreason.Hispreceptorsgraduallyrosetotherankandconsequenceofministersofstate:and,astheywiselydissembledtheirsecretauthority,heseemedtoactwithfirmness,withpropriety,andwithjudgment,onthemostimportantoccasionsofhislifeandreign.Buttheinfluenceofthiselaborateinstructiondidnotpenetratebeyondthesurface;andtheskilfulpreceptors,whosoaccuratelyguidedthestepsoftheirroyalpupil,couldnotinfuseintohisfeebleandindolentcharacterthevigorousandindependentprincipleofactionwhichrendersthelaboriouspursuitofgloryessentiallynecessarytothehappiness,andalmosttotheexistence,ofthehero.Assoonastimeandaccidenthadremovedthose
 
faithfulcounsellorsfromthethrone,theemperoroftheWestinsensiblydescendedtothelevelofhisnaturalgenius;abandonedthereinsofgovernmenttotheambitioushandswhichwerestretchedforwardstograspthem;andamusedhisleisurewiththemostfrivolousgratifications.Apublicsaleoffavorandinjusticewasinstituted,bothinthecourtandintheprovinces,bytheworthlessdelegatesofhispower,whosemerititwasmade_sacrilege_toquestion.Theconscienceofthecredulousprincewasdirectedbysaintsandbishops;whoprocuredanImperialedicttopunish,asacapitaloffence,theviolation,theneglect,oreventheignorance,ofthedivinelaw.AmongthevariousartswhichhadexercisedtheyouthofGratian,hehadappliedhimself,withsingularinclinationandsuccess,tomanagethehorse,todrawthebow,andtodartthejavelin;andthesequalifications,whichmightbeusefultoasoldier,wereprostitutedtothevilerpurposesofhunting.LargeparkswereenclosedfortheImperialpleasures,andplentifullystockedwitheveryspeciesofwildbeasts;andGratianneglectedtheduties,andeventhedignity,ofhisrank,toconsumewholedaysinthevaindisplayofhisdexterityandboldnessinthechase.TheprideandwishoftheRomanemperortoexcelinanart,inwhichhemightbesurpassedbythemeanestofhisslaves,remindedthenumerousspectatorsoftheexamplesofNeroandCommodus,butthechasteandtemperateGratianwasastrangertotheirmonstrousvices;andhishandswerestainedonlywiththebloodofanimals.ThebehaviorofGratian,whichdegradedhischaracterintheeyesofmankind,couldnothavedisturbedthesecurityofhisreign,ifthearmyhadnotbeenprovokedtoresenttheirpeculiarinjuries.Aslongastheyoungemperorwasguidedbytheinstructionsofhismasters,heprofessedhimselfthefriendandpupilofthesoldiers;manyofhishourswerespentinthefamiliarconversationofthecamp;andthehealth,thecomforts,therewards,thehonors,ofhisfaithfultroops,appearedtobetheobjectsofhisattentiveconcern.But,afterGratianmorefreelyindulgedhisprevailingtasteforhuntingandshooting,henaturallyconnectedhimselfwiththemostdexterousministersofhisfavoriteamusement.AbodyoftheAlaniwasreceivedintothemilitaryanddomesticserviceofthepalace;andtheadmirableskill,whichtheywereaccustomedtodisplayintheunboundedplainsofScythia,wasexercised,onamorenarrowtheatre,intheparksandenclosuresofGaul.Gratianadmiredthetalentsandcustomsofthesefavoriteguards,towhomaloneheintrustedthedefenceofhisperson;and,asifhemeanttoinsultthepublicopinion,hefrequentlyshowedhimselftothesoldiersandpeople,withthedressandarms,thelongbow,thesoundingquiver,andthefurgarmentsofaScythianwarrior.TheunworthyspectacleofaRomanprince,whohadrenouncedthedressandmannersofhiscountry,filledthemindsofthelegionswithgriefandindignation.EventheGermans,sostrongandformidableinthearmiesoftheempire,affectedtodisdainthestrangeandhorridappearanceofthesavagesoftheNorth,who,inthespaceofafewyears,hadwanderedfromthebanksoftheVolgatothoseoftheSeine.AloudandlicentiousmurmurwasechoedthroughthecampsandgarrisonsoftheWest;andasthemildindolenceofGratianneglectedtoextinguishthefirstsymptomsofdiscontent,thewantofloveandrespectwasnotsuppliedbytheinfluenceoffear.Butthesubversionofanestablishedgovernmentisalwaysaworkofsomereal,andofmuchapparent,difficulty;andthethroneofGratianwasprotectedbythesanctionsofcustom,law,religion,andthenicebalanceofthecivilandmilitarypowers,whichhadbeenestablishedbythepolicyofConstantine.ItisnotveryimportanttoinquirefromwhatcausetherevoltofBritainwasproduced.Accidentiscommonlytheparentofdisorder;theseedsofrebellionhappenedtofallonasoilwhichwassupposedtobemorefruitfulthananyotherintyrantsandusurpers;thelegionsofthatsequesteredislandhadbeenlongfamousforaspiritofpresumptionand
 
arrogance;andthenameofMaximuswasproclaimed,bythetumultuary,butunanimousvoice,bothofthesoldiersandoftheprovincials.Theemperor,ortherebel,--forthistitlewasnotyetascertainedbyfortune,--wasanativeofSpain,thecountryman,thefellow-soldier,andtherivalofTheodosiuswhoseelevationhehadnotseenwithoutsomeemotionsofenvyandresentment:theeventsofhislifehadlongsincefixedhiminBritain;andIshouldnotbeunwillingtofindsomeevidenceforthemarriage,whichheissaidtohavecontractedwiththedaughterofawealthylordofCaernarvonshire.Butthisprovincialrankmightjustlybeconsideredasastateofexileandobscurity;andifMaximushadobtainedanycivilormilitaryoffice,hewasnotinvestedwiththeauthorityeitherofgovernororgeneral.Hisabilities,andevenhisintegrity,areacknowledgedbythepartialwritersoftheage;andthemeritmustindeedhavebeenconspicuousthatcouldextortsuchaconfessioninfavorofthevanquishedenemyofTheodosius.ThediscontentofMaximusmightinclinehimtocensuretheconductofhissovereign,andtoencourage,perhaps,withoutanyviewsofambition,themurmursofthetroops.Butinthemidstofthetumult,heartfully,ormodestly,refusedtoascendthethrone;andsomecreditappearstohavebeengiventohisownpositivedeclaration,thathewascompelledtoacceptthedangerouspresentoftheImperialpurple.Buttherewasdangerlikewiseinrefusingtheempire;andfromthemomentthatMaximushadviolatedhisallegiancetohislawfulsovereign,hecouldnothopetoreign,oreventolive,ifheconfinedhismoderateambitionwithinthenarrowlimitsofBritain.HeboldlyandwiselyresolvedtopreventthedesignsofGratian;theyouthoftheislandcrowdedtohisstandard,andheinvadedGaulwithafleetandarmy,whichwerelongafterwardsremembered,astheemigrationofaconsiderablepartoftheBritishnation.Theemperor,inhispeacefulresidenceofParis,wasalarmedbytheirhostileapproach;andthedartswhichheidlywastedonlionsandbears,mighthavebeenemployedmorehonorablyagainsttherebels.Buthisfeebleeffortsannouncedhisdegeneratespiritanddesperatesituation;anddeprivedhimoftheresources,whichhestillmighthavefound,inthesupportofhissubjectsandallies.ThearmiesofGaul,insteadofopposingthemarchofMaximus,receivedhimwithjoyfulandloyalacclamations;andtheshameofthedesertionwastransferredfromthepeopletotheprince.Thetroops,whosestationmoreimmediatelyattachedthemtotheserviceofthepalace,abandonedthestandardofGratianthefirsttimethatitwasdisplayedintheneighborhoodofParis.TheemperoroftheWestfledtowardsLyons,withatrainofonlythreehundredhorse;and,inthecitiesalongtheroad,wherehehopedtofindrefuge,oratleastapassage,hewastaught,bycruelexperience,thateverygateisshutagainsttheunfortunate.Yethemightstillhavereached,insafety,thedominionsofhisbrother;andsoonhavereturnedwiththeforcesofItalyandtheEast;ifhehadnotsufferedhimselftobefatallydeceivedbytheperfidiousgovernoroftheLyonneseprovince.Gratianwasamusedbyprotestationsofdoubtfulfidelity,andthehopesofasupport,whichcouldnotbeeffectual;tillthearrivalofAndragathius,thegeneralofthecavalryofMaximus,putanendtohissuspense.Thatresoluteofficerexecuted,withoutremorse,theordersortheintentionoftheusurper.Gratian,asherosefromsupper,wasdeliveredintothehandsoftheassassin:andhisbodywasdeniedtothepiousandpressingentreatiesofhisbrotherValentinian.ThedeathoftheemperorwasfollowedbythatofhispowerfulgeneralMellobaudes,thekingoftheFranks;whomaintained,tothelastmomentofhislife,theambiguousreputation,whichisthejustrecompenseofobscureandsubtlepolicy.Theseexecutionsmightbenecessarytothepublicsafety:butthesuccessfulusurper,whosepowerwasacknowledgedbyalltheprovincesof

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