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Fabrication Process

Fabrication Process

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Published by Nithin Janardhanan

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Published by: Nithin Janardhanan on Jun 02, 2012
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06/02/2012

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UNIT 1Fabrication Process
 Layout is designed from a point of view where the designer is looking down onto thelayout. This is the best way to design layout, but it does make visualizing the physicaldevice rather difficult.This layout is slightly strange, but is still perfectly valid. The horizontal line will act asthe reference for the cross sectional view. A cross sectional view is what the layoutwould look like if it were cut along the line, and the edge of the cut was examined.The exact process steps change dramatically from one fab to another. However, they allfollow the same basic idea. Layout designers don't need to know the exact details, just ageneral idea of how a chip is made. The specific details is the job of the processengineers.
 
 The die is covered with a photoresist that will react with the pattern of shadows cast ontothe chip from the mask. The sections that are still soluble are washed away, leaving thosesections unprotected from that process step. In a standard N-Well process, one of thefirst things made is the N-Well.Once the N-Well is created, the P-type diffusions can be created. Boron is the mostpopular element used for this step.The N-type diffusions must also be created. Phosphorous and Arsenic can both be usedfor this step.
 
 A very thin layer of silicon dioxide is created on the chip. This will be used to insulatethe gate from the surface of the chip.The first deposit of polysilicon now takes place to act as the gate of each transistor. Thesilicon dioxide under each polysilicon gate is known as gate oxide.

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