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anarchist's economics

anarchist's economics

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Published by: Sarah on Dec 29, 2008
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Z a
Z aba la za
Bo o k s
ba la za
Bo o k s
\u201c K n o w le d g e is t h e K e y t o b e F r e e \u201d
P o st: P o s t n e t S u it e 1 1 6 , P r iv a t e B a g X 4 2 ,
Braam fontein, 2017, Johannesburg, South
A frica
E -M a il:z a b a la z a @ u n io n . o r g . z a
W e b s it e : w w w .zabalaza.net/zababooks
A
An
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ic
cs
s
A n
A n A lte rn a tiv e fo r a
A lte rn a tiv e fo r a
W
World in C risis
orld in C risis
A
Ab ra h a m
b ra h a m
G
Gu ille n
u ille n
A N A R CH IST ECO N O M ICS
A N A R CH IST ECO N O M ICS
T h e e c o n o m ic s o f th e S
T h e e c o n o m ic s o f th e Sp
pa n is h L ib e r t
a n is h L ib e r ta ria n
a ria n
C o lle c tiv e s 1 9 3 6 -3 9
C o lle c tiv e s 1 9 3 6 -3 9
S p a in
h a s
a
p a r t ic u la r
h is t o r ic
s ig n if ic a n c e
fo r
th e
w orld
a n a r c h is t
m ovem ent.
Th e
e x t e n t
a n d
b re a d th
o f
p u b lic a t io n s o n
t h e S p a n is h
C iv il W a r a n d
t h e R e v o lu t io n
o f 1 9 3 6 - 9 is e v e r e x p a n d in g .
N e v e r t h e le s s , lit t le h a s b e e n
w r it t e n
o n
t h e e c o n o m ic s
o f t h a t r e v o lu t io n , in
w h ich

h u n d r e d s o f c o lle c t iv e s w e r e e s t a b lis h e d b y t h e r e v o lu t io n a r y w o r k in g c la s s in c it y a n d co u n try ,

a c t in g
o n
in s p ir a t io n
fro m
th e
N a t io n a l
C o n fe d e r a t io n
o f
L a b o u r
(CNT), the
a n a r c h o - s y n d ic a lis t
u n io n .
I n
t h is p a m p h le t t h e a u t h o r e x a m in e s t h e a d o p t io n
o f
t h e id e a s o f t h e C .N .T . a n d lo o k s a t s o m e o f t h e a n a r c h is t
c o lle c t iv e s c r e a t e d
i n
1 9 3 6 .
H e
assesses the
success of
t h e s e
e x p e r im e n t s
w h ich
c o n s t it u t e d
a
w ay
o f
l i f e

fo r thousands of people for up to three years, and draw s con- c lu s io n s o n

th e d a y
t o
d a y
im p r o v e m e n t s t h a t w e r e p r o -
d u c e d .

T h e c o lle c t iv e s , a s w e ll a s b e in g a t r ib u t e t o t h e t e n a c - it y a n d c la r it y o f t h e id e a s o f t h e a n a r c h is t m o v e m e n t , c a n a ls o

b e
t a k e n
a s
a n o t h e r
c o n f ir m a t io n
th a t
a n a r c h is t
id e a s a r e o f t e n t a k e n u p b y n o n - r e v o lu t io n a r y w o r k e r s in
t im e s o f u p h e a v a l a n d w it h
t h e p r o s p e c t o f a m o r e e g a li-
t a r ia n
s o c ie t y .
N ow ,
ju st
a s
i n
1 9 3 6 ,
t h e s e
id e a s
a re
e s s e n t ia l if w e a r e t o r id o u r s e lv e s o f c a p it a lis m
and cre-
a t e a t r u ly f r e e s o c ie t y .
M
M
A PPEN D IX
2: TEN
PO IN TS O F
A PPEN D IX
2: TEN
PO IN TS O F
SELF-M A N A GEM EN T
SELF-M A N A GEM EN T
1 . S e lf- m a n a g e m e n t: D o n o t d e le g a te p o w e r in o th e rs .
2 . H a rm o n y : U n ite th e w h o le a n d th e p a r ts in fe d e r a lis t s o c ia lis m .
3 . F e d e ra tio n : S o c ia lis m s h o u ld n o t b e c h a o tic b u t c o h e re n t, w ith u n ity b e tw e e n th e
w h o le a n d th e p a r ts o n a r e g io n a l a n d n a tio n a l le v e l.
4 . D ire c t A c tio n :A n ti-c a p ita lis t, a n ti-b u re a u c ra tic , s o th a t th e p e o p le a re th e a c tiv e
s u b je c ts th ro u g h d ire c t d e m o c ra c y.
5 . C o -o rd in a te d
s e lf-d e fe n c e :
F re e d o m
a n d
s e lf-m a n a g e d
s o c ia lis m
must be
d e fe n d e d a g a in s t th e to ta lita r ia n b u r e a u c r a c y a n d th e im p e r ia lis t b o u r g e o is ie .
6 . C o -o p e ra tio n in th e c o u n try s id e a n d s e lf-m a n a g e m e n t in th e c ity : A g ric u ltu re
c a n b e b a s e d o n th e s e lf-m a n a g e d c o m p a n y w h o s e m o d e l c a n b e th e a g ro -in d u s tri-
a l c o m p le x .
In th e c ity , in d u s trie s a n d s e rv ic e s s h o u ld b e s e lf-m a n a g e d a n d th e ir
a d m in is tra tiv e
c o u n c ils s h o u ld
b e
c o n s titu te d
b y d ire c t p ro d u c e rs , w ith
n o
r u lin g
c la s s o r in te r m e d ia r ie s .
7 . P ro d u c tio n :U n io n is e d
w o rk s h o u ld
b e
c o n v e rte d
in to
fre e ly a s s o c ia te d
w o rk
w ith o u t b o u rg e o is ie o r b u re a u c ra c y.
8 . A ll p o w e r to th e a s s e m b ly :N o - o n e s h o u ld d e c id e o n b e h a lf o f th e p e o p le o r

u s u rp th e ir fu n c tio n s b y m e a n s o f p ro fe s s io n a l p o litic s . D e le g a tio n o f p o w e rs s h o u ld n o t b e p e r m a n e n t b u t s h o u ld b e g iv e n to d e le g a te s w h o a r e e le c te d a n d r e c a lla b le b y th e a s s e m b ly.

9. No
d e le g a tio n
o f p o litic s :T h e re s h o u ld b e n o p a rtie s , n o v a n g u a rd s , e lite s ,
d ire c to rs , m a n a g e rs .

S o v ie t b u re a u c ra c y h a s k ille d th e s p o n ta n e ity o f th e m a s s e s a n d h a s d e s tro y e d th e ir c re a tiv e c a p a c ity a n d re v o lu tio n a ry a c tiv ity, c o n v e rtin g th e m in to a p a s s iv e p e o p le a n d a d o c ile in s tr u m e n t o f th e p o w e r e lite s .

1 0 . S o c ia lis a tio n a n d n o t r a tio n a lis a tio n o f w e a lth :T h e fo llo w in g m u s t ta k e th e

m o s t im p o rta n t ro le s : th e s y n d ic a te s , th e c o -o p e ra tiv e s , lo c a l s e lf-m a n a g e d s o c i- e tie s , p o p u la r o r g a n is a tio n s , a ll k in d s o f a s s o c ia tio n s , lo c a l, r e g io n a l, c o u n ty , n a tio n - a l, c o n tin e n ta l a n d w o rld fe d e ra l s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t...

A n a r c h ist
Eco n
A n a r c h ist
Eco no m ics
-
Pa g e 20
o m ics
-
Pa g e 20
S
Sp
pa
ai
in
n
1
19
93
36
6-
-1
19
93
39
9
The Econom y
The Econom y
o f th e L ib e rta ria n
o f th e L ib e rta ria n
C o lle c tiv e s
C o lle c tiv e s
M
M
IN TR O D U CTIO N
IN TR O D U CTIO N

S p a in h a s a p a rtic u la r h is to ric s ig n ific a n c e fo r th e w o rld a n a rc h is t m o v e m e n t. T h e e x te n t a n d b r e a d th o f p u b lic a tio n s o n th e S p a n is h C iv il W a r a n d th e R e v o lu tio n o f 1 9 3 6 - 9 is e v e r e x p a n d in g . T h is is w h o lly u n d e r s ta n d a b le s in c e th a t p e r io d o f tim e re p re s e n ts o n e o f th e m o s t fa s c in a tin g o f th is c e n tu ry a n d o n e th a t is v ita l in th e h is - to ry o f re v o lu tio n s .

T h a t a n a r c h is ts s h o u ld h a v e w r itte n e x te n s iv e ly o n th is s u b je c t is e q u a lly u n d e r s ta n d a b le s in c e fo r a n a r c h is ts a n d s y n d ic a lis ts S p a in a n d 1 9 3 6 r e p - re s e n t th e m o s t c o h e re n t a n d fa r-re a c h in g c h a n g e c a rrie d o u t in h is to ry u n d e r th e in flu e n c e a n d g u id in g lig h t o f a n ti- a u th o r ita r ia n a n d a n ti- s ta tis t id e o lo g y .

S p a in , to a la r g e e x te n t, h a s b e c o m e th e p r im e in s p ir a tio n a n d v in d ic a tio n th a t a n a r c h is t id e a ls c a n in d e e d b e p u t in to p ra c tic e th ro u g h th e re v o lu tio n a ry a c tio n o f s y n d ic a lis t u n io n s . T h e S p a n is h e x p e rie n c e , o f tw o o r th re e y e a rs ' re v o lu tio n a ry s o c ie ty, w h e re w o rk e rs a tte m p te d to c re a te a n e w life th a t w a s b a s e d o n s o lid a rity, m u tu a l a id a n d fre e d o m , o v e rs h a d o w s o th e r a n a rc h is t e n d e a v o u rs s u c h a s th e a n a rc h is t-in s p ire d s lo g a n s o f th e 1 9 1 7 R u s s ia n re v o lu tio n c a llin g fo r 'th e la n d to th e p e a s a n ts a n d th e fa c to rie s to th e w o rk e rs ', th e F a c to ry C o m m itte e m o v e m e n t in Ita ly in 1 9 2 0 o r K ro n s ta d t in 1 9 2 1 .

N e v e rth e le s s , d e s p ite th e fa c t th a t S p a in a n d 1 9 3 6 h a v e p ro d u c e d a w id e ra n g e o f d e b a te a n d p u b lic a tio n s , little h a s b e e n w ritte n o n th e e c o n o m ic s o f th a t re v o lu - tio n , in w h ic h h u n d r e d s o f c o lle c tiv e s w e r e e s ta b lis h e d b y th e r e v o lu tio n a r y w o r k in g c la s s in c ity a n d c o u n try , a c tin g o n in s p ira tio n fro m

th e N a tio n a l C o n fe d e ra tio n o f
L a b o u r ( C N T ) , th e s y n d ic a lis t u n io n .

T h e a n a r c h is ts in S p a in h a d m a in ta in e d liv e ly a n d c o m p le x d e b a te s o n th e fu tu r e o rg a n is a tio n o f e c o n o m ic m a n a g e m e n t o f th e s o c ie ty th a t w a s to ris e fro m th e a s h e s o f th e o ld . E v e n tu a lly , a n d e s p e c ia lly d u e to th e s tr e n g th o f s y n d ic a lis t id e a s in S p a in fro m

th e e a rly 1 9 0 0 's o n w a rd s , th e c o n c e p t o f th e fre e m u n ic ip a lity w a s e s p o u s e d a n d a p p r o v e d a t a n a r c h is t c o n fe r e n c e s , in g r e a t s im ila r ity to B a k u n in 's o r ig in a l id e a s o n e c o n o m ic o r g a n is a tio n

In th is p a m p h le t, w h ic h h a s b e e n w ritte n fro m
te x ts ta k e n fro m
C h a p te rs T h re e
a n d F iv e o f a n a r c h is t e c o n o m is t A b r a h a m
G u ille n 's 1 9 8 8 ;b o o k e n title dE c o n o m ia
L ib e rta ria, (F u n d a c io n
d e
E s tu d io s
L ib e rta rio s , B ilb a o ), th e
a u th o r e x a m in e s

th e a d o p tio n o f th e s e id e a s a n d th e ir a p p ro v a l a t th e 1 9 3 6 C N T C o n g re s s p rio r to th e J u ly u p r is in g w h ic h le ft h a lf o f S p a in u n d e r fa s c is t c o n tr o l. B y a n a ly s in g th e s e id e a s in g e n e r a l a n d b y lo o k in g a t s o m e o f th e a n a r c h is t c o lle c tiv e s , c r e a te d in 1 9 3 6 , h e a s s e s s e s th e s u c c e s s o f th e s e e x p e rim e n ts , w h ic h c o n s titu te d th e life s ty le o f th o u -

A n a r c h ist
Eco n
A n a r c h ist
Eco no m ics
-
Pa g e 2
o m ics
-
Pa g e 2
M
M
A PPEN D IX
1
A PPEN D IX
1
It is u n tru e to s a y th a t e q u a lity is in o p p o s itio n to fre e d o m . A s e lf-m a n a g e d s o c i-
e ty s h o u ld
b e
a b le
t o
a c c o m p lis h
b o th , a s th e re
is no
fre e d o m

w ith o u t e q u a lity . S o m e p e o p le g iv e o rd e rs , o th e rs o b e y , s o m e liv e b e tte r, o th e rs w o rs e . A ll th is , w h ic h ta k e s p la c e in p r iv a te a n d s ta te c a p ita lis m , c a n b e a b o lis h e d , n o t im m e d ia te ly a n d a b s o lu te ly , b u t in a n e a r fu tu re , if a ll p e o p le a re a b le to e n jo y th e s a m e o p p o rtu n itie s fo r p o litic a l, m o r a l a n d s c ie n tific e d u c a tio n .

F o r th is re a s o n , s e lf-m a n a g e m e n t, b y o v e rc o m in g th e a lie n a tio n o f th e w o rk in g c la s s b y th e b o s s e s a n d th e s ta te , fre e s a ll p e o p le a n d n o t ju s t th e w o r k e r.

C O -O P E R A
C O -O P E R AT IO N
T IO N
A N D
S E L F -M A N A G E M E N T
A N D
S E L F -M A N A G E M E N T
T h e
lib e rta ria n
e c o n o m y, a s
a n
a lte rn a tiv e
t o
th e
n a tio n a l a n d
in te rn a tio n a l

m o n o p o lie s o f th e to ta l s ta te , p ro p o s e s s e lf-m a n a g e m e n t a n d c o -o p e ra tio n in th e e c o n o m ic s p h e r e . O n th e o n e h a n d , it e n v is a g e s d y n a m ic s e lf- m a n a g e m e n t in la r g e u rb a n in d u s trie s , a n d o n th e o th e r, th e c re a tio n o f c o lle c tiv e a g ro -in d u s tria l c o m - p le x e s in th e c o u n try s id e , in o rd e r to in te g ra te a n d d iv e rs ify th e e c o n o m ie s o f d iffe r- e n t a re a s in a c o -o p e ra tiv e m a n n e r.

N a tu ra l a n d h u m a n re s o u rc e s w o u ld b e h a r- m o n is e d to re d u c e th e ru ra l e x o d u s a n d to m a in ta in fu ll e m p lo y m e n t. In b o th c a s e s th e lib e r ta r ia n e c o n o m y w o u ld b e c a p a b le o f c r e a tin g a s o c ia l, p a r tic ip a to r y e c o n o - m y, w h e re fu ll e m p lo y m e n t w o u ld b e g u a ra n te e d .

T h is w o u ld b e a c h ie v e d n o t b y m o n e ta r y o r fin a n c ia l m e c h a n is m s a s K e y n e s w o u ld h a v e , b u t b y d iffe r e n t ty p e s o f fir m s w h ic h w h o lly in te g r a te c a p ita l, te c h n o lo g y a n d w o r k b y a k in d o f fir m w h ic h h a s th e s o c ia l in te re s t a t h e a rt.

In c o n tra s t to th e W e s te rn a n d E a s te rn m o d e ls , th e lib e rta ria n e c o n o m y h u m a n -
is e s a n d d e m o c r a tis e s th e e c o n o m y in th e fo llo w in g w a y s :
-a ll w o rk e rs h a v e e q u a l rig h ts a n d d u tie s in th e c o -o p e ra tiv e s e lf-m a n a g e d firm .
-a ll w o rk e rs c a n b e e le c te d to a n d re c a lle d fro m
th e c o u n c ils o f s e lf-a d m in is tra tio n
th ro u g h a s s e m b lie s , w h ic h a re s o v e re ig n .
-a ll w o rk e rs b e n e fit fro m
th e e c o n o m ic s u r p lu s p r o d u c e d b y th e ir c o lle c tiv is e d a n d
s e lf-m a n a g e d w o rk p la c e s in a c c o rd a n c e w ith q u a lity a n d q u a n tity o f w o rk d o n e .
-a ll p o s ts o n th e s e lf-m a n a g e m e n t o r c o -o p e ra tiv e c o u n c ils s h o u ld b e re n e w e d a fte r
a s h o rt tim e w ith re -e le c tio n n o t p o s s ib le fo r a c e rta in p e rio d s o th a t b u re a u c ra tis a -
tio n d o e s n o t d e v e lo p .

In s u b s ta n c e , th is is w h a t th e lib e r ta r ia n e c o n o m y s h o u ld b e lik e . It s h o u ld s h o w th a t it is c a p a b le o f c re a tin g a s m u c h p ro d u c tiv e c a p a c ity , o r e v e n m o re , th a n th e r e g im e s o f s ta te a n d p r iv a te c a p ita lis m .

It w o u ld m a k e little s e n s e to b e s o c ia lly
a d v a n c e d w h ils t e c o n o m ic a lly b a c k w a r d .
A br a h a m
Gu il l en
-
P a g e 19
A br a h a m
Gu il l en
-
P a g e 19

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