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Table Of Contents

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background
1.3 The Objectives of This Study
1.4 Hypothesis to be Tested
1.5 Organisation of This Study
Kuwait Background Information
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Historical Background
2.4.1 Population Annual Growth Rate
2.4.2 Active Vs Inactive Population
2.4.3 Recent Changes in Population Structure
2.5 Welfare System
2.5.1 Education
Government Expenditure Distributed by Different Sectors (Millions K.D.)
Education at Government Schools 1971/72 - 2005/06
Population by Educational Status, Nationality & Sex 2004
2.5.2 Health Care
2.5.3 Housing
2.5.4 Electricity and Water
2.5.5 Secure Jobs
G.D.P. per Capita (U.S. Dollars) 1998-2002-2007
2.6 Economy
2.6.2 The Current Economic Activity
2.6.3 National Income and Government Expenditures
Gross Domestic Product by Type of Economic Activity (millions of KD)
2.6.4 Labour Force
2.7 Summary
Literature Review
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Attitude Definition and Characteristics
3.3 Attitude Components
3.3.1 Cognitive Component
3.3.2 Affective Component
3.3.3 Behavioural Component
3.4 Measuring Attitude
3.4.1 Thurstone Scale
3.4.2 Likert Scale
3.4.3 Guttman Scale
3.4.4 Semantic Differential
Advantage and Disadvantage for the Attitude Scales
3.5 The Theory of Reasoned Action
3.5.1 Criticism of the Theory of Reasoned Action
3.5.2 Extension of the Theory
3.7 Attitudes Toward Advertising
3.7.1 Structure of Attitude Towards Advertising
3.7.2 Individual/ Liberal Culture
3.7.3 Collective/ Liberal Culture
3.7.4 Collective/ Conservative Culture
3.8 The Aim of the Current Study
3.9 Summary
4.1 Introduction
4.4.4 Educational and Social Institutions
4.4.5 Religion
4.5 Culture Dimensions
4.5.1 Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions
4.5.2 Individualism/ Collectivism Dimension
(Collectivist/Individualist)
4.5.3 Liberal / Conservative Dimensioned
4.6.1 Language
4.6.2 Religion
4.6.3 Family System
4.6.4 Understanding Kuwait Culture
Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions Summary*
Religion in the Arabic World
4.7 Commutative Affect between Culture and Advertising
4.8 Summary
Advertising in Kuwait
5.2 Advertising History in Kuwait
5.3 Availability of Media in Kuwait
5.4 Advertising Expenditures
Table 5.1 The Advertising Expenditure Per Capita
Media Advertising Expenditure in Kuwait
Figure 5.1 Media Advertising Expenditure in Kuwait
5.5 Kuwaiti Government Restriction to Advertising
5.6 Advertising Challenges in Kuwait
5.7 Summary
6.3.3 Choice of Methods
Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
6.4 Data Collection Methods
6.5 Questionnaire Design
6.5.1 Preliminary Design of the Questionnaire
6.5.2 The Translation of the Research Questionnaires
6.5.3 Scale Selection
6.5.4 Pilot Test
6.5.5 Second Pilot Test
6.6 Structure of the Final Version of the Questionnaire
6.7 Population and Selection of Sample
6.7.1 Sample Size
6.7.2 Selecting the Sample Type
Groups’ Percentage and Sample Size
6.8 Administration of the Questionnaire and Data Collection
6.9 Data Reliability and Data Validity
6.9.1 Reliability
6.9.2 Validity
6.10 The Statistical Test
6.11 Summary
Results Analysis and Discussion
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Demographics Description of Sample
Cross Tabulation for Respondents’ Personal Characteristic by Nationality
7.3 Factor Analysis
Rotated Factor Analysis
Factors Retained After Combining Similarity
Factor Analysis Scree Plot
7.4 Overall Attitude Towards Advertising
7.4.1 Tests of Hypothesis # 1
Overall Average Attitude towards Advertising
7.4.2 Tests of Hypothesis # 2
Cross Tabulation for Overall Attitude Towards Advertising by Nationality
7.5 Need for Advertising
7.5.1 Test Hypothesis # 3
Income
7.6 Economic Effect
Summary of Respondent Economic Effect of Advertising
7.6.1 Test Hypothesis # 4
Kruskal-Wallis Test for Economic Effect by Personal Characteristics
Mann-Whitney U Test for Economic Effect by Gender
Cross Tabulation for Economic Effect by Gender
7.7 Need for Control to Advertising
Control over Advertising - Summary of Frequencies
7.7.1 Test Hypothesis # 5
Mann-Whitney U Test for Control over Advertising by Gender
7.8 Materialistic Effects of Advertising
Percentage of Frequency Responses to Advertising Promoting Materialism
7.8.1 Test Hypothesis # 6
Characteristics
Mann-Whitney U Test for Materialism from Advertising by Gender
7.9 Ethics in Advertising
Frequency Percentage for the Ethics of Advertising
7.9.1 Test Hypothesis # 7
Kruskal-Wallis Test for Ethics in Advertising by Personal Characteristics
Mann-Whitney U Test for Ethics within Advertising by Gender
7.10 Credibility of Advertising
Frequency Percentage for Credibility of Advertising
7.10.1 Test Hypothesis # 8
Mann-Whitney U Test for Advertising Credibility by Gender
Kruskal-Wallis Test for Advertising Credibility by Personal Characteristics
7.11 Informative Quality of Advertising
Advertising
7.11.1 Test Hypothesis # 9
Mann-Whitney U Test Information in Advertising by Gender
7.12 Entertainment Qualities of Advertising
Frequency Percentage for the Entertaining Qualities from Advertising
7.12.1 Test Hypothesis # 10
Mann-Whitney U Test Entertainment Value of Advertising by Gender
Children within the Family and Total Income
7.13 Effect of Advertising on Culture
7.13.1 Advertising and Local Values
7.13.2 International Advertising Effect
and Number of Children
7.13.3 Advertising Effect on Religion
Mann-Whitney U Test for the Effects of Advertising on Religion by Gender
7.13.4 Test Hypothesis # 11
Mann-Whitney U Test the Effects of Advertising on Culture by Gender
7.14 Advertising as Source Influencing Purchase Decision
Sources that Influence Consumers Decisions when they Choose a Product
7.15 Summary of the Finding
Consumers Attitude towards Advertising Dimensions By Nationality
Dimension by Personal Characteristics*
Attitudes Towards Advertising by Personal Characteristics
Conclusion
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Objectives and Conclusions
8.2.1 Attitude Towards Advertising in General
8.2.2 Effect of Culture in the Attitude Towards Advertising
8.2.3 Effect of Advertising on Local Culture
8.2.4 The Personal Characteristics Effect
8.3 Contribution of the Study
8.4 Limitation of the Study
References
The Questionnaires in English Language
The Questionnaires in Arabic Language
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z Test
Summary of the Frequency for all Questions
Factor Loading for All Variables
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An Empirical Investigation of Culture Impact on Consumer Perception and Attitude Towards Advertising

An Empirical Investigation of Culture Impact on Consumer Perception and Attitude Towards Advertising

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Published by Hassan Arslan

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Published by: Hassan Arslan on Jun 02, 2012
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