Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
An-3003 Applications of Non Zero Crossing Triac Driver Featuring

An-3003 Applications of Non Zero Crossing Triac Driver Featuring

Ratings: (0)|Views: 781 |Likes:
Published by Havanyani

More info:

Published by: Havanyani on Dec 29, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 Application Note AN-3003
 Applications of Non Zero Crossing Triac DriversFeaturing the MOC3011
 
www.fairchildsemi.com
 REV. 4.06 1/10/03
 Construction
 The MOC30XX family of non-zero crossing triac driversconsist of an aluminum gallium arsenide infrared LED,optically coupled to a silicon detector chip. These twochips are assembled in a 6 pin DIP package, providing7.5KV
 AC(PEAK)
 of insulation between the LED and theoutput detector. These output detector chips are designed todrive triacs controlling loads on 115 and 220V AC powerlines. The detector chip is a complex device which functionsin the same manner as a small triac, generating the signalsnecessary to drive the gate of a larger triac such asFairchild’s FKPF12N60. The MOC30XX triacs are capableof controlling larger power triacs with a minimum number of additional components.Table 1 lists the members of the MOC30XX triac driverfamily. The family is divided by blocking voltage, V
 DM
 ,and input LED trigger sensitivity, I
 FT
 . MOC3010/1/2 arerated at 250V, the MOC3020/1/2/3 are 400VAC, and theMOC3051/2 have a V
 DM
 of 600V.
 Basic Electrical Description
 The AlGaAs LED has nominal 1.3 V forward drop at 10 mAand a reverse breakdown voltage greater than 3 V. The maxi-mum current to be passed through the LED is 60 mA.The detector has a minimum blocking voltage of 250 Vdc ineither direction in the off state. In the on state, the detectorwill pass 100 mA in either direction with less than 3 V dropacross the device. Once triggered into the on (conducting)state, the detector will remain there until the current dropsbelow the holding current (typically 100 µA) at which timethe detector reverts to the off (non-conducting) state. Thedetector may be triggered into the on state by exceeding theforward blocking voltage, by voltage ramps across the detec-tor at rates exceeding the static dv/dt rating, or by photonsfrom the LED. The LED is guaranteed by the specificationsto trigger the detector into the on state when the current pass-ing through the LED is equal to, or greater than the I
 FT(max)
 specification. For example the MOC3011 requires at least10mA of LED current to guarantee turn-on. A similar device,the MOC3012, has exactly the same characteristics except itrequires only 5 mA to trigger.Since the MOC3011 looks essentially like a small opticallytriggered triac, we have chosen to represent it as shown onFigure 1.
 Figure 1. Schematic Representation ofMOC3011 and MOC3012 Table 1.
 Non-Zero-Crossing Triac OptocouplersPart NumberI
 FT
 (ma)maxV
 TM
 (V)maxV
 DM
 (V)minI
 H
 (mA)I
 DRM
 (nA)maxV
 ISO
 AC[PEAK]
MOC30101532501001007.5kVMOC30111032501001007.5kVMOC3012532501001007.5kVMOC30203034001001007.5kVMOC30211534001001007.5kVMOC30221034001001007.5kVMOC3023534001001007.5kVMOC3051152.56002801007.5kVMOC3052102.56002801007.5kV
 
1ANODE2CATHODE3654NCMAINTERM**Do not connectMAINTERM
 
 AN-3003APPLICATION NOTE
 2
 
REV. 4.06 1/10/03
 Figure 2. Simple Triac Gating CircuitFigure 3. Logic to Inductive Load Interface
 Using the MOC3011 as a Triac Driver
 Triac Driving Requirements
 Figure 2 shows a simple triac driving circuit using theMOC3011. The maximum surge current rating of theMOC3011 sets the minimum value of R
 1
 through theequation:R
 1
 (min) = V
 in
 (pk)/1.2AIf we are operating on the 115 Vac nominal line voltage,V
 in
 (pk) = 180 V, thenR
 1
 (min) = V
 in
 (pk)/1.2A = 150 ohms.In practice, this would be a 150 or 180 ohm resistor.If the triac has I
 GT
 = 100 mA and V
 GT
 = 2 V, then thevoltage V
 in
 necessary to trigger the triac will be given by,V
 inT
 = R
 1
 • I
 GT
 + V
 GT
 + V
 TM
 = 20 V.
 Resistive Loads
 When driving resistive loads, the circuit of Figure 2 may beused. Incandescent lamps and resistive heating elements arethe two main classes of resistive loads for which 115 Vac isutilized. The main restriction is that the triac must be prop-erly chosen to sustain the proper inrush loads. Incandescentlamps can sometimes draw a peak current known as “flash-over” which can be extremely high, and the triac should beprotected by a fuse or rated high enough to sustain thiscurrent.
 Line Transients-Static dv/dt
 Occasionally transient voltage disturbances on the ac linewill exceed the static dv/dt rating of the MOC3011. In thiscase, it is possible the MOC3011 and the associated triacwill be triggered on. This is usually not a problem, except inunusually noisy environments, because the MOC3011 andits triac will commute off at the next zero crossing of the linevoltage, and most loads are not noticeably affected by anoccasional single half-cycle of applied power. See Figure 4for typical dv/dt versus temperature curves.
 Inductive Loads-Commutating dv/dt
 Inductive loads (motors, solenoids, magnets, etc.) present aproblem both for triacs and for the MOC3011 because thevoltage and current are not in phase with each other. Sincethe triac turns off at zero current, it may be trying to turn off when the applied current is zero but the applied voltage ishigh. This appears to the triac like a sudden rise in appliedvoltage, which turns on the triac if the rate of rise exceeds thecommutating dv/dt of the triac or the static dv/dt of theMOC3011.
 Snubber Networks
 The solution to this problem is provided by the use of “snubber” networks to reduce the rate of voltage rise seen bythe device. In some cases, this may require two snubbers-onefor the triac and one for the MOC3011. The triac snubber isdependent upon the triac and load used and will not be dis-cussed here. In many applications the snubber used for theMOC3011 will also adequately protect the triac.In order to design a snubber properly, one should reallyknow the power factor of the reactive load, which is definedas the cosine of the phase shift caused by the load. Unfortu-nately, this is not always known, and this makes snubbingnetwork design somewhat empirical. However, a method of designing a snubber network may be defined, based upon atypical power factor. This can be used as a “first cut” andlater modified based upon experiment.Assuming an inductive load with a power factor of PF = 0.1is to be driven. The triac might be trying to turn off when theapplied voltage is given byV
 to
 = V
 pk 
 sin
θ
 = V
 pk 
 = 180 V
V
CC
R
LOAD
V
IN
115 Vac16150R
1
4210mAMOC3011V
CC
5V300
TRIACI
GT
R
2
C
15 mA24000.130 mA12000.250 mA8000.3NOTE: Circuit supplies 25mA drive to gate of triacat V
in
= 25V and T
A
< 70
°
C7400Z
L
115Vac180R
1
R
2
C
1
1642MOC3011
 
 APPLICATION NOTEAN-3003
 
REV. 4.06 1/10/03
 3
 First, one must choose R
 1
 (Figure 3) to limit the peak capac-itor discharge current through the MOC3011. This resistor isgiven byR
 1
 = V
 pk 
  /I
 max
 = 180/1.2 A = 150
 
 A standard value, 180 ohm resistor can be used in practicefor R1.It is necessary to set the time constant for
τ
 = R
 2
 C. Assumingthat the triac turns off very quickly, we have a peak rate of rise at the MOC3011 given bydv/dt = V
 to
  / 
 τ
 = V
 to
  / R
 2
 CSetting this equal to the worst case dv/dt (static) for theMOC3011 which we can obtain from Figure 4 and solvingfor R
 2
 C:dv/dt(T
 J
 = 70
 °
 C) = 0.8 V/µs = 8
×
 10
 5
V/sR
 2
 C = V
 to
  /(dv/dt) = 180/(8
×
10
 5
 ) = 225
×
10
 -6
 The largest value of R
 2
 available is found, taking into con-sideration the triac gate requirements. Using Fairchild’spower triac, FKPF12N60, I
 GT
 = 30 mA. If the triac is to betriggered when Vin
 40V:(R
 1
 + R
 2
 ) = V
 in
  /I
 GT
 = 40/0.030
 1.33 k If we let R
 2
 = 1200 ohms and C = 0.1 µF, the snubbingrequirements are met. Triacs having less sensitive gates willrequire that R
 2
 be lower and C be correspondingly higher asshown in Figure 3.
 Input Circuitry
 Resistor Input
 When the input conditions are well controlled, as for exam-ple when driving the MOC3011 from a logic gate, only asingle resistor is necessary to interface the gate to the inputLED of the MOC3011. The resistor should be chosen to setthe current into the LED to be a minimum of 10 mA but nomore than 50 mA. 15 mA is a suitable value, which allowsfor considerable degradation of the LED over time, andassures a long operating life for the coupler. Currents higherthan 15 mA do not improve performance and may hasten theaging process inherent in LED's. Assuming the forward dropto be 1.5 V at 15 mA allows a simple formula to calculate theinput resistor.R
 I
 = (V
 CC
 - 1.5)/0.015Examples of resistive input circuits are seen in Figures 1and 5.
 Increasing Input Sensitivity
 In some cases, the logic gate may not be able to source orsink 15 mA directly. CMOS, for example, is specified tohave only 0.5 mA output, which must then be increased todrive the MOC3011. There are numerous ways to increasethis current to a level compatible with the MOC3011 inputrequirements; an efficient way is to use the FairchildTinyLogic™, NC7SZ04 shown in Figure 5.
 Figure 4. dv/dt versus Temperature
16MOC3011Commutatingdv/dtStaticdv/dtdv/dt = 8.9 f V
in
dv/dt Test Circuit
+5V0V10k2N3904422.42530405060
T
A
, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (
°
C)
   d  v   /   d   t ,   S   T   A   T   I   C ,   (   V   /
     µ
   S   )   d  v   /   d   t ,   C   O   M   M   U   T   A   T   I   N   G ,   (   V   /
     µ
   S   )
7080901002.01.61.20.80.400.240.200.160.120.080.040V
CC
R
in
V
in
R
L
Static dv/dtR
L
= 2k
R
L
= 510k
Commutating dv/dt

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Nancy Avalos liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->