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1.9 Chapter Appendix: It’s All Greek to Me
Analytic Geometry
2.1 Objectives (the Width of a Circle)
2.2 Radian Measurement and Polar Coordinates
2.3 What Is Trigonometry?
2.3.1 Radian Measures for Trigonometric Functions
2.3.2 Conic Sections and Some Analytical Geometry
2.4 New Terminology
3.1 Objectives
3.2 Working with Vectors
3.2.1 Vector Norms
3.3 So What Is the Matrix?
3.3.1 Some Special Matrices
3.4 Controlling the Matrix
3.5 Matrix Transposition
3.6.1 Special Matrix Forms
3.6.2 Vectorization of Matrices
3.7 New Terminology
Linear Algebra Continued: Matrix Structure
4.1 Objectives
4.2 Space and Time
4.4 Matrix Rank
4.5 Matrix Norms
4.6 Matrix Inversion
4.7 Linear Systems of Equations
4.8 Eigen-Analysis of Matrices
4.10 New Terminology
Elementary Scalar Calculus
5.1 Objectives
5.2 Limits and Lines
5.3 Understanding Rates, Changes, and Derivatives
Example 5.5: Derivatives for Analyzing Legislative Committee Size
5.4 Derivative Rules for Common Functions
5.4.1 Basic Algebraic Rules for Derivatives
5.4.2 Derivatives of Logarithms and Exponents
5.4.3 L’Hospital’s Rule
5.5 Understanding Areas, Slices, and Integrals
5.5.1 Riemann Integrals
5.6 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
5.6.1 Integrating Polynomials with Antiderivatives
5.6.2 Indeﬁnite Integrals
5.6.3 Integrals Involving Logarithms and Exponents
5.6.4 Integration by Parts
5.7 Additional Topics: Calculus of Trigonometric Functions
5.7.1 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
5.7.2 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
6.2 Partial Derivatives
6.3 Derivatives and Partial Derivatives of Higher Order
6.4.1 Evaluating Zero-Derivative Points
6.4.2 Root Finding with Newton-Raphson
6.5 Multidimensional Integrals
6.6 Finite and Inﬁnite Series
6.6.1 Convergence
6.7 The Calculus of Vector and Matrix Forms
6.7.1 Vector Function Notation
6.8 Constrained Optimization
6.9 New Terminology
7.2.1 The Binomial Theorem and Pascal’s Triangle
7.3 Sets and Operations on Sets
7.3.1 General Characteristics of Sets
7.3.2 A Special Set: The Empty Set
7.3.3 Operations on Sets
7.4 The Probability Function
7.5 Calculations with Probabilities
Example 7.11: Probabilistic Analysis of Supreme Court Decisions
7.6 Conditional Probability and Bayes Law
7.7 Independence
Fig. 7.4. Marginal Contribution of Third Parties
7.8 Odds
7.9 New Terminology
Random Variables
8.1 Objectives
8.2 Levels of Measurement
8.3 Distribution Functions
Example 8.1: Measuring Ideology in the American Electorate. As
8.3.1 Randomness and Variables
8.3.2 Probability Mass Functions
8.3.3 Bernoulli Trials
8.3.4 Binomial Experiments
Table 8.1. Binomial Outcomes and Probabilities
8.3.5 Poisson Counts
Version
8.3.7 Probability Density Functions
8.3.8 Exponential and Gamma PDFs
8.3.9 Normal PDF
Example 8.7: Levels of Women Serving in U.S. State Legislatures
8.3.11 The Uniform Distributions
8.4 Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode
8.6 Correlation and Covariance
8.7 Expected Value
8.8 Some Handy Properties and Rules
8.9 Inequalities Based on Expected Values
8.10 Moments of a Distribution
8.11 New Terminology
Markov Chains
9.1 Objectives
9.2 Deﬁning Stochastic Processes and Markov Chains
9.2.1 The Markov Chain Kernel
9.2.2 The Stationary Distribution of a Markov Chain
9.3 Properties of Markov Chains
9.3.1 Homogeneity and Periodicity
9.3.2 Irreducibility
9.3.3 Recurrence
Example 9.4: Conﬂict and Cooperation in Rural Andean Communi-
9.3.4 Stationarity and Ergodicity
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Essential Mathematics for Political and Social Research

# Essential Mathematics for Political and Social Research

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07/10/2014

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