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14 Pharyngeal Apparatus

14 Pharyngeal Apparatus

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Published by Shadi Shalabi

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Published by: Shadi Shalabi on Jun 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Pharyngeal Apparatus
Pouches –EndodermGrooves –EctodermArch –Neural CrestSomitomeresAortic Arch -Vessel
Humans:Arch 1-4 –prominentArch 5 absentArch 6 -transient
FaceFirst Arch
#1 = Mandibular Arch
2 prominences: Maxillary and Mandibular Maxillary Process:Cranial -upper jawCartilages (endochondrial):alisphenoidincusBone (intramembranous):maxillazygomaticbonesquamouspart of thetemporal boneManidibularProcessCaudal -lower jawCartilagesMeckel’scartilageMalleusIncusBoneMandibleMaxillilary and Mandibular processes are important for Faceformation
Face is formed from 7 primordiasurrounding thestomodeum1 frontonasalprominence -cranial boundary of thestomodeumPaired nasomedialprocessPaired maxillary processPaired ofmandibularprocess
Frontonasalprominence forms the foreheadHorseshoe-shaped nasal process forms the nasal pitwith the nasalplacodein the depression. Nasal prominences fuse mediallyMidline fusion of the nasomedial processes forms theintermaxillarysegment that later forms:1)philtrum-groove of upper lip2) Bridge and septum of the nose3) Part of the maxilla and gum4) Primary palateThenasolacrimalgroove separates thenasolateral process from the maxillary process –forms thenasolacrimalduct viaectodermalthickening,internalization and canalizationMaxillary process fuses lateral to the nasal processMaxillary process forms:Lateral parts of the upper lipMaxillaSecondary palateMedial fusion ofmandibularprocesses forms the lower  jawLateral fusion of maxillary andmandibularprocesses
Three primordiaPrimary palate = median palatine processSecondary palate = fuses lateral palatine processesPrimary palate -The innermost part of theintermaxillarysegment forms a wedge-shapedmesodermaltissue between maxillary processes (median palatine process)Secondary palate -forms from two projections from themaxillary processes -called lateral palatine processes(palatal shelves)
Projection of lateral palatine processes fuses:Medially with each other Medially with nasal septum (from thefrontonasal prominence)Rostrallywith the medial palatine processPalatal raphe= fusion line of lateral palatine processesHard palate –Ossification in the lateral palatine processesSoft palate -posterior to the hard palate and its projection= uvula
#1 -MandibularArch
Muscles –from 4
SomitomereMuscles of mastication (e.g. masseter) Nerve –Trigeminal (V)Aortic Arch -Maxillary Artery1
Pharyngeal Pouch Auditory tube (eustachiantube) and tympanic cavity (distal end)1
Pharyngeal Groove External auditory meatus(exterior ear opening)
#2 –Hyoid Arch
SkeletonStapesStyloidprocessLesser horn of the hyoid boneMuscles –from 6
SomitomereMuscles of facial expression Nerve –Facial (VII)2
Aortic Arch -Hyoid artery, Stapedial artery2
Pharyngeal PouchSupratonsilar fossa –component of the palatine tonsils

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