ON WHAT IS MAN
On what is man. In this gate will be clarified words that the early ones did not reach. They are awesome foundations, and if they were not essential to clarifying the matter of prophecy, I would not have revealed them - and I will write them as concisely as possible. Guard them under your clothes. I will ask a few deep questions:
To know if the soul of man is greater than the angels or not. If we say that it is, then why didn't the angels also go down to this world to dress in a body? And if (you say) the angels are greater, this cannot be, because all the writings of the Sages we find the opposite. For example, "Who is greater the guardian or the guarded" and many others. Also, the bible itself testifies the opposite as it says "You have weakened, the Rock that formed you" (Devarim 32:18). Or "Give strength to G-d" (Tehilim 68:35), "You are sons to the L-ORD your G-d" (Devarim 14:1). "Yisrael in who I am glorified" (Yeshaya 49:3), "the angels don't say 'Kadosh' until the Jews starts below." And we don't find such things by the angels at all anywhere (that we need to wait for them)
Even if we say it's true (that the soul of man is greater than the angels), it is hard to understand to call man "sons of G-d" or to say that they weaken or give strength to G-d?! One could come to heresy..
The matter of prophecy, how is it conceivable that the King of Kings would speak to lowly man, and even through an angel to the lowly man, and also while man is clothed in the lowest and basest matter of all the worlds!
We clarified in the previous section the matter of the worlds, how they are all one name of G-d, and are divided into 5 worlds with different 5 spiritual levels (Yechida, Chaya, Neshama, Ruach, Nefesh), and this physical world is like the body of all of them. What comes out is that all the worlds together are in the form of a man who also includes a physical body and a soul with 5 spiritual levels. Know that the [numerical value] of the name of G-d in full (spelling) equals [the numerical value of] "Adam" in gematria. This forms exists also in each subdivision (body and 5 spiritual levels) and each subdivision is like a sub-man with one name of G-d divided in 5 levels and 10 sephirot.
There is also another division which we have not discussed and that is that the 10 sephirot are composed of 613 levels as we'll explain. Therefore, all the worlds together and also in each subdivision by itself, were created in the form of man below. This is the secret of "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness" (Bereishit 1:24). Understand this well.
We explained previously that from Beriah and below, everything is called the "tree of knowledge" which includes good and evil except that at each level down, the good diminishes and the evil increases, until we find that this lowly world is mostly evil and minimally good. We also explained that the evil always envelops the good. Therefore the good is called the fruit and the evil is called the klipa (shell) which is worn by the fruit. Not only that, but this even applies in the "good" lights - because the purer and the more spiritual light wears and is enveloped by the other less spiritual light. Likewise at all levels. We also explained how the light of "Ein Sof" is the innermost of all and outside of it, the 10 sephirot according to their levels, where the Keter is innermost and Malkhut is outermost.
Now we will explain something new. That is, just like there is a unique light, called the world of the 10 sephirot, which is in the form of a man, so too there is another light called the "repository of the souls of men" which is of exactly the same form in all levels and details as the "man" of the 10 sephirot, which is called complete "G-dliness" (since the 10 sephirot are like a prism for passing G-d's light from the Ein Sof. So they are considered "complete G-dliness"). And it (the 10 sephirot) enters and wears this light which is called the "repository of the souls of men" in all its details.
There is another light in the form of man which is called the "repository of angels" from which are formed all the angels. It also is of exactly the same form as the 10 sephirot in all levels and it is the outer garment to the light of the "repository of the souls of men".
There is another small light, and it is called the "dark light". It is all hard dinim (judgments) from which come all klipot (impure forces) in each world. It envelops and is worn by the light of the "repository of angels" and it also is of the form of man.
Outside of all these 4 lights are the firmaments of that world, which are the "body" of that world. Inside the firmaments are the 5 lights described earlier, namely, the Ein Sof is innermost and in intensity according to the spiritual level of that world. Outside that, the light of the 10 sephirot, then the repository of souls, rep. of angels, and the klipot, then the firmaments which are the body of these lights. Afterwards, inside the firmaments (for example in our world this is the space/time which can contain matter and energy) are created the derivatives of that world (i.e. the matter, energy, creatures, etc. which fill that world). These derivatives include all the levels since they draw their strength from the firmaments which themselves include all the five lights (Ein Sof, 10 Sephirot,Men, Angels, klipot), with the Ein Sof innermost and giving life to all of them. The power drawn from the "repository of souls of men" is called the upper Mazel of the man below. And understand this very well. But, that which is in [the world of] Beriah is called the Mazel of the Neshama, and in [the world of Yetzira] is called the Mazel of the Ruach, and in [the world of] Asiyah is called the Mazel of the Nefesh.
Now, we'll clarify what is man, what is his function. We'll start from the world of Asiya from the bottom up.
We have examined each world and its derivatives. Now, the world of Asiya (starting from the bottom) has at first the lowest portion (lowest 10 sephirot.) which are called the "4 foundations" (earth, water, wind, fire). Now all the offsprings (creatures, etc.) were created with the foundation of earth, which is the "body" (i.e. the lowest) of the 4 foundations (earth, water, wind, fire). They were created with the physical part of the foundation of earth (the foundation of earth also has spiritual levels internally in the form of 10 sephirot. The lowest sefira, i.e.Malkhut of earth, is physical earth devoid of any spirituality).
They are divided into four classes.
In being higher than all the creations, he is elevated even higher because he is also included and tied in with all the 5 worlds and in all their details. How? After the lower soul (of the 4 elements earth,water,wind, fire), a soul enters him from the firmament of Vilon, and from there and above, all the way up to the highest firmament in Asiya (which is called "Aravos"), all this together is called the soul of Asiya. This is called the Intellectual soul, the holy soul in a person. It is divided into the 5 soul levels (within Asiya itself).
We can also look at it in terms of 2 divisions; because every level which is taken from the 4 foundations (earth,water, wind, fire) are all called together the "foundation soul" which is divided as before into (domem-rocks, Tzomeah-vegetative, Chai-animal, Medaber-fire) and the soul of Vilon is the Keter (crown) on top of them. It is called the "intellectual soul" and the remaining firmaments are the remaining soul levels of the intellectual soul (ruach, chaya, yechida). Everything together can be called one "Nefesh" (soul) of Asiyah which includes all the levels in Asiyah.
Afterwards, he takes a Ruach from the 4th world (yetzira in figure 2). It also is divided into many levels along the lines we described for the 5th world. Together, all the soul levels in yetzira are called the soul level of "Ruach" relative to the total picture of the 5 worlds. In a similar fashion, "Neshama" from the world of Beriah (#3 in figure 2), Chaya from Atzilut, and Yechida from Adam Kadmon.
Now we have explained well what is man. He includes within himself all the worlds whether in the subdivisions or the totality of all the worlds, unlike all the other creations whether upper (angels) or lower (animals,etc.) which only include from the world in which they were created.
Now, all this is from below to above (that man includes all the worlds). Man also includes all the worlds from inside to outside. How? Behold, in the 5th world (Asiya) he has a body from the element of earth which is called the "Olam HaShafal" (low world) and inside it is the "foundation soul" in the semblance of the klipot. Inside that are the angels of this world which were created for all the matters of this world, to cause plants to grow, etc. Inside that the semblance of the souls of men and all these together make a chariot for the light which comes from the lights of the 10 sephirot of the world of Asiyah which are innermost and serve to give life to everything. And likewise for what there is to a man from the rest of Asiyah and the 3 worlds, yetzira, briah, and atzilut (figure 2).
Now we have explained all the answers to the questions we posed above (beginning of Sec.III). Now, the light of the souls of men is more inner and higher then that of the angels, therefore the angels are his servants - because through him (man) they (the angels) receive their light and life from the 10 sephirot.
This is what is meant by "Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the ambassadors of peace weep bitterly. Isaiah 33:7" (i.e. angels cried out during the temple destruction) Because when the energy from the 10 sephirot does not reach the souls of men, which is more inner than them, their energy is also reduced being that they are external to the souls of men.
And therefore, the angels did not descend below to wear a physical body,because certainly they would be defeated by the klipot. Because even the souls of men does not have the strength to stand up to the klipot, all the more so them. And the proof is from the "Nefilim" (fallen angels in Bereishis 6:4 - Rashi on Bamidbar 13:33 brings down "Nefilim-Giants among the sons of Shamchazay and Azael who fell from heaven during the days of Enosh"), who tried to descend to this world and became lost. They will be destroyed in the future.
Another reason even greater (that angels don't descend to wear a body) is that in their lacking, they cannot draw spiritual energy to all the worlds except from their level and outside (unlike man which contains all the levels of all worlds), and even this much they are not capable being that they cannot bring energy to themselves from the 10 sephirot except through the souls of men.
Now it's true that the soul of man in the world of yetzira (4th world) is lower than an angel in Beriah (3rd world) and likewise for the other worlds, but a soul of man in beriah is greater than an angel in beriah, and likewise for each world. (i.e. within the same world and level, the soul of men is greater than the angel).
We have also clarified the greatness of the soul of man. It is light born out of and drawn from the light of the 10 sephirot themselves without any intermediary. For this they are called "You are sons to the L-rd your G-d." (Devarim 14:1). Because they are in the semblance of a son who is united with his father and comes from Him. And this is also what is meant by "the Avos (patriarchs), they are the holy Chariot" - i.e. a chariot to the 10 sephirot which ride on them without any intermediary light. This is also the meaning of "You are My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified" (Isaiah 49:3), because the clothing of a person is his glory, as is written "As a bridegroom will don glory" (ibid 61:10)
Now, the light of the souls is a garment to the light of the 10 sephirot. This is the meaning of "my beloved (G-d) descended to the garden (this world) to browse in the gardens, and to gather roses" (Shir HaShirim 6:2) whose first letters spell "levush" (garment) because He picks the souls of tzadikim which have a fragrance like roses due to their good deeds in this world, and He picks them to wear His light on them (Ruach HaKodesh). And this is the meaning of "And you who cling to G-d..." (Devarim 4:4). Completely clinging with the light of the 10 sephirot, unlike all the other creations.
We have also clarified the matter of the good and evil inclinations in a man. They are two forms added to a man besides his soul. And they are light from the angels (good inclination) and light from the klipot (evil inclinations), outside of the good inclination and external to it. But being that the soul itself is innermost than all of them, and being that it is the essence of a man, therefore it is in his power to tilt the free will to the place that he wants - because he (the soul) is greater than them. Now, his primary desire is towards the good inclination, because it is holy like him and also near to him. But for the body, it's primary desire is to the evil inclination, because both are from the side of evil (physicality), and also they are closer to each other. It is because of this that there is a battle between the physicality and the soul. Because since the soul cannot do the mitzvot except through the body, which tends towards the evil inclination, because of this there is a great difficulty to subjugate it (the evil inclination).
We have clarified that the soul has the power of choosing to follow the good inclination, but since it needs the actions of the body, it has great exertion in subjugating the evil inclination. And understand this well, that after death there is no (main) punishment neither to the soul nor the body until they re- join together like before death. (in the time of the resurrection)
We will now explain the answer to the first two questions. Namely, why was it necessary to create man with a physical body and also why was he created with a good and an evil inclination. This will also answer the verse "Give strength to G-d" (Tehilim 68:35) and "You have weakened, the Rock (Gd) that formed you..." (Devarim 32:18)(i.e. how is it conceivable for man to strengthen or weaken Gd)
Behold, in the beginning of creation, all the worlds were created in the manner described above. From the power of the "Ein Sof", with (G-d's) simple altruistic desire to do kindness. Afterwards, (after the creation of all the worlds) it was necessary to draw down the spiritual "nourishment", life, and energy, and to all the worlds in order that they should continue to exist... So after the creation it was necessary for the worlds to sustain themselves through their own actions (i.e. the worlds should draw down the spiritual energy from G-d through their own actions) - similar to a son who grows up no longer needs to eat at his father's table.
However, the 10 sephirot do not depend on any actions because the spiritual energy that is needed to sustain them is drawn constantly from the "Ein Sof" as it says "evil will not dwell with You." (Tehilim 5:5) The creation though, namely, from the souls of men and out, which are mixed with good and evil, need actions and tikun (reparation). Therefore when there is a lessening of the spiritual energy from the 10 sephirot to the creations, it appears as if there is a weakening of G-d's power (i.e. since the souls of men are the intermediaries between the 10 sephirot and the rest of creation, when the souls block the passage of energy, it appears as if G-d's power is weakened.) Therefore it is written "You have weakened, the Rock (G-d) that formed you..." (Devarim 32:18) and the opposite: "Give strength to G-d" (Tehilim 68:35).
Another reason (why it appears G-d is weakened) is as follows. When a man is healthy and clean, he desires that his garments are noble according to his greatness. So too, the sephirot appear weak when the creations are in need of reparation (since the sephirot are innermost and "wear" the souls of men like a garment. We have clarified the 3rd question (in beginning of Part 3 Gate 2)
For the reasons explained above (that it is necessary for the worlds to maintain themselves), it was necessary to create a man which would include all the creations and emanations (i.e. everything), which would tie together all worlds as explained above until the depths of the land (our world). Because he is closest to receiving the energy/life force from the 10 sephirot. Then by the tikun (reparation) of his actions, he will draw down the energy from the 10 sephirot to himself, and then from himself to the angels, and from the angels to the klipot, in order that they repair what is possible to separate as we'll explain nearby, and from the klipot to the worlds themselves which are the Kelim (vessels) and bodies of each world. And if, G-d forbid, he sins, he destroys all the worlds.
Behold, we have explained the need for creating man with a body and soul and with a good and evil inclination. And there is another similar, reason for the yetzer hara. Namely, that it is necessary to be created in man in order that he make children and that he eats - but everything only in the necessary amounts and in purity. And also, it (the yetzer hara) is necessary in each world to bring down the spiritual energy which condenses and becomes physical for the vessels, namely, the worlds themselves. And without the spiritual energy, the vessels (worlds) would not continue to exist..
Therefore it was necessary for man to be joined with all the worlds, that they should help him in his actions to bring down the spiritual energy to himself and to them. Because they themselves do not have the power to draw it (the energy). Therefore when a man sins, all the worlds are damaged and receive punishment and a diminishing of energy because they did not help him. Understand this well. And this is the meaning of "all the wickedness like smoke will be destroyed" being that the klipot caused the sin more than everything else, therefore their punishment will be great. Nevertheless, on the good portion of them (the klipot) it is written "And you will love H' your G-d with all your hearts" (Devarim 6:5) - "hearts" plural means with both inclinations. Since the evil inclination can also be purified - but the negative part of the evil inclination (which should be eliminated) on that it is written "As wax melts before the fire, so let the wicked perish at the presence of G-d" (Tehilim 68:3).
We have explained that man includes all the worlds, and this is what is meant by "it is all of man" (Koheles 12:13). And it is the deeper meaning of "Let Us make man in our image". This is why "Let Us" is written in plural form - because all the worlds were partners in his making. Then he includes the image of man in all the worlds (i.e. the 10 sephirot) because all of them need his actions. This is the deeper meaning of "And He placed him in the garden of Eden to work it and guard it."(Genesis 2)
- (work it) means positive commandments and (guard it) means negative commmandments. As it says "G-d did not bring rain on the land because the man was not there to work it." (Genesis 2:5) And also, "And I placed my word in your mouth to plant the heavens and to lay the foundations of the earth" (Isaiah 51:16). Because man through his actions brings down life to heaven and earth and it is as if he planted them and laid their foundation. Therefore we find that "You are with Me (G-d)" as the Sages taught (G-d says:)"My partner - I create and you uphold".
From now it should not be difficult to understand the matter of prophecy like the Sages taught on the verse "And to cling to Him." (Devarim 11:22) and "with Him you will cling" (ibid 10:20) because the prophet clings to G-d through bringing down the prophecy and the spiritual energy to the world below. And this is no surprise because there is no light which clings to the 10 sephirot like the souls of men. This is the deeper meaning of "And you who cling to H' your G-d..."
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