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Table Of Contents

Characteristics of Solutions, Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions
Motivation for the Use of Coagulation in Wastewater Treatment
Motivation for the Use of Coagulation in Wastewater Treatment (cont.'d)
Coagulation
Additional Benefits of Coagulation
Effects of Coagulation Treatment on Wastewater
Coagulation vs. Flocculation
Stability of Colloids in Wastewater
Types of Colloids
Hydrophilic Colloids
Hydrophilic Colloids (continued)
Hydrophobic Colloids
Double Layer Associated with Colloidal Particles
Double Layer Associated with Colloidal Particles (continued)
Zeta Potential
Electric Potential Around a Colloidal Particle
Relationship Between Zeta Potential and Coagulation
Isoelectric Point
Energy Forces Between Colloidal Particles
Energy Forces Between Colloidal Particles (continued)
Coagulation as a Process of Destabilization of Colloids
Destabilization Mechanisms
Repression of Double Layer
Repression of Double Layer (cont.'d)
Neutralization of Colloid Charge
Bridging of Colloidal Particles Via Polymer Addition
Entrapment of Colloidal Particles by Sweeping Floc
Characteristics of Coagulants
Common Coagulants
Aluminum and Iron Salts as Coagulants
Characteristics of Common Inorganic Coagulants
Hydrolysis of Alum in Water
Reaction of Alum in the Presence of Calcium and Magnesium Alkalinity
Equilibrium Composition of Solutions in Contact with Al(OH)3
Hydrolysis of Ferric Chloride in Water
Equilibrium Composition of Solutions in Contact with Fe(OH)3
Reaction of Ferric Sulfate in the Presence of Alkalinity or Lime
Reaction of Ferrous Sulfate in the Presence of Alkalinity and Lime
Effect of the Presence of Phosphates on Coagulation with Alum or Iron Salts
Lime as a Coagulant
Lime as a Coagulant (continued)
Effect of the Presence of Phosphates on Coagulation with Lime
Examples of Polyelectrolytes
Examples of Coagulant Polyelectrolytes
Polyelectrolytes as Coagulants
Typical Coagulant Dosage
Coagulant Aids
Activated Silica as a Coagulant Aid
Laboratory Coagulation Tests
Jar Test
Jar Test Apparatus
Strategy to Conduct Laboratory Coagulation Tests
Jar Test Procedure
Jar Test Procedure (continued)
Typical Results of Jar Test
Zeta Potential Test
Mechanisms of Flocculation
Example of Apparatus for Coagulation-Flocculation and Settling
Shear Rate (Velocity Gradient)
Shear Stress and Shear Rate (Velocity Gradient)
Shear Stress, Velocity Gradient and Power Dissipation
Velocity Gradient and Power Dissipation
Mechanical Agitation Systems in Coagulation and Flocculation
Tanks with Submerged Impeller(s)
Submerged Impellers
Example of Submerged Impellers
Impeller Pumping Action
Flow Patterns Resulting from the Presence of Baffles (Stators)
Power Number
Non-Dimensional Groups Used in Power Consumption Calculations
Power Consumed by Submerged Impellers
Typical Power Number Curve for a Submerged Impeller
Horizontal Paddle Systems
Geometry of a Horizontal Paddle
Power Dissipated by a Horizontal Paddle
Power Dissipated by Hydraulic Devices
Generalized Approach to the Design of Coagulation and Flocculation Devices
Examples of Coagulation-Flocculation Processes for Industrial Wastewaters
Efficiency of Coagulation Processes to Remove Pollutants
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Coagulation vs Flocculation

Coagulation vs Flocculation

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Published by Mohammad Azad

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Published by: Mohammad Azad on Jun 04, 2012
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