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Table Of Contents

I The Presocratics
2. The Milesians
(a) Beginnings
(b) Material Monism?
(c) The Soul
(d) Anaximander
(e) The Principle of Sufficient Reason
(f) The Unlimited
(g) Anaximenes: The Priority of Air
(i) The Reduction of Properties
(j) Xenophanes: Elemental Explanation
3. Causal Origination
(b) Heraclitus
(d) Parmenides
(e) Later Eleatics
4. Pluralism and Emergence
(a) Pythagoreanism
(d) Coda: The Atomists
5. Conclusions
II Science and Sophistry
1. Rational Medicine
(c) Theory and Practice
(d) Hypothesis and Empiricism
2. The Sophists
(a) The Nature of Sophistry
(b) Responsibility and the Explanation of Action
(c) The Limits of Responsibility
3. History
(a) Ethnography and Explanation
(b) Ethnography and Medicine
4. Conclusions
III Plato
1. Metaphysics and Causation
(b) Forms and Properties
2. Causation and the Soul
(a) Alcmaeon's Argument Revisited
(b) The Final Argument of the Phaedo
3. Hypothesis and Explanation
(c) Explanation and Understanding
4. Timaeus : The Model Applied
(a) The Basis of the Argument
(b) The Construction of the Cosmos
(d) The Elements
5. Coda: Mathematical and Astronomical Theory
IV Aristotle: Explanation and Nature
1. The Structure of Reality
(a) The Importance of Nature
(b) Nature and Change
2. Causation and Coincidence
(a) The Four Causes
(b) Chance and Spontaneity
3. Teleological Explanation
(a) Teleology and Regularity
(b) The Compatibility of Teleology and Mechanism
(c) Hypothetical Necessity
(d) The Scope of Teleological Explanation
(e) Explanation and the Good
(a) The Soul
(b) Freedom and Responsibility
V Aristotle: Explanation and the World
1. Demonstration and Explanation
(a) The Structure of Science
(b) The Epistemology of First Principles
(c) Division, Definition, and the Biological Sciences
2. Observation and Science
(a) Error and Empiricism
(b) Motion and the Elements
(c) Dynamics and the Explanation of Motion
(e) Chemical Combination
(f) The Structure of the Universe
(g) The Motor of the Universe
3. Theophrastus and After
(a) History, Science, and Method
(b) Teleology and Metaphysics
(c) Aristotelianism Refined: Strato of Lampsacus
VI The Atomists
1. Democritus
(a) The Background to Atomism
(c) Atoms and the Void
(e) Ou Mallon and The Principle of Sufficient Reason
2. Epicureanism and Explanation
(a) The Principles of Epicurean Physics
(b) Perception and Emergence
(c) The Necessity of Atomism
(d) The Shortcomings of Epicurean Reductionism
(e) Teleology and Mechanism
3. Freedom and the Explanation of Action
(a) Bivalence and Determinism
(b) Freedom and Causal Necessitation
4. Later Epicurean Scientific Epistemology
(a) The Nature of Signs
(b) Signs and Generalizations
VII The Stoics
1. Stoic Causal Theory
(a) Background
(b) Stoic Materialism
(b) The Stoic Analysis of Causation
(d) Antecedent Causes
(e) Dispositions and Powers
(f) Causes and Conditions
2. Freedom and Determinism
(a) Stoic Compatibilism
3. Stoic Cosmology
(b) Fate and Moral Progress
VIII The Sceptics
1. The Development of Scepticism
2. Aenesidemus Against the Aetiologists
3. The General Attack on Causes
(a) The Inconceivability of Causes
4. The Modes of Agrippa
5. Scepticism and Science
(a) Divination and Instrumentalism
6. Conclusions
IX Explanation in the Medical Schools
1. The Limits of Explanation
(a) Diocles of Carystus
(c) Erasistratus
2. Empiricism and Rationalism
(a) The Roots of Empiricism
(b) The Empiricist Account of Medical Science
(c) The Rationalists' Counter-Attack
(d) Transition to the Similar
(f) The Empiricism of Menodotus
3. Methodism
(a) The Structure of Medical Methodism
X The Age of Synthesis
1. The Origins of Syncretism
(a) The Academy of Speusippus
(b) The Role of Astronomy
Plutarch and Pseudo-Plutarch
(d) The Handbook of Alcinous
4. The Revival of Aristotelianism: Alexander of Aphrodisias
(b) Causes and Explanation
(c) Fate and Responsibility
XI Science and Explanation
1. Ptolemy
(a) Saving the Appearances
(b) Astrological Explanation
2. Galen: The Structure of Causation
(b) Erasistratus and Antecedent Causes
3. The Aristotelian Influence
(a) Four Causes?
(b) The Instrumental Cause
(c) Incidental Causes
(d) The Formal Cause
4. Galen's Teleology
(a) Directed Teleology
(b) The Scope of Teleological Explanation
(d) The Regulative Function of Teleology
5. Powers, Functions, and Activities
(a) Function and Anatomy
(b) Faculties and the Soul
(c) Action and Responsibility
XII The Neoplatonists
1. The Roots of Neoplatonism
(a) Plotinus: Life and Sources
(b) The Neo-Pythagorean Background
2. Plotinus' System
(a) Matter, Form, and Soul
(d) Cosmology and Freedom
3. After Plotinus
(a) Iamblichus
(b) Proclus
(c) Philoponus
(d) Simplicius
4. Conclusions and Reflections
List of Abbreviated Principles
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Causation and First Principles in Greek Metaphysics

Causation and First Principles in Greek Metaphysics

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