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Relativistic Wave Equations for Many-particle Quantum Systems

Relativistic Wave Equations for Many-particle Quantum Systems

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Relativistic wave equations for many-particle quantum systems
S. Rupp
 II. Institut fu¨ r Theoretische Physik der Universita¨ t Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany
Received 24 July 2002; revised manuscript received 22 November 2002; published 13 March 2003
In this paper, some concepts of nonrelativistic many-particle quantum mechanics
e.g., product states,density matrix
are generalized to the relativistic domain using a framework called relativistic Schro¨dingertheory
RST
. By using a general ansatz, the RST framework is simplified considerably and some of its fieldequations are solved directly. The RST approach is then compared with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics
QM
for the case of a product state
conventional QM
and its RST analog. It is shown that relativistic waveequations can be derived from the RST formalism, so that they coincide in the nonrelativistic limit with thewell-known Hartree equations.DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.034101 PACS number
s
: 03.65.Pm, 03.65.Ge, 03.65.Ta
The dynamics of a state vector in nonrelativistic quantummechanics is governed by the Schro¨dinger equation
i
d
 H ˆ 
.
1
Likewise, the time development of a mixture configuration isgiven by the von Neumann equation
i
dt 
 
 H ˆ 
,
 
.
2
The quantities
and
 
are elements of an infinite-dimensional
global
Hilbert space and must therefore be con-sidered as nonlocal objects. For example, the state vector
of an
-particle system depends on the time coordinate
and the three-coordinates
x
   
i
(
i
1, . . . ,
 N 
) at
different 
points of three-space. Both Eqs.
1
and
2
are not Lorentzcovariant, yet one may assume that they constitute the non-relativistic limiting case of some relativistic framework. Thisis clearly true for the one-particle case: The Schro¨dingerequation
1
may be considered as the nonrelativistic limit of the Klein-Gordon equation
D
D
 
Mc
2
 
0,
3
see Ref.
1

. The generalization of this result to a system of 
 N 
particles is, however, difficult as the
space coordinates
 x
   
i
of 
have to be replaced by
space-time coordinates
 x
i
, such that the vector
depends on
individual par-ticle times
i
. This makes the interpretation of the state vec-tor difficult and necessitates the construction of one globaltime out of the
individual particle times, a difficult if notimpossible task 
2
. For the two-particle case, this has beendone
cf. Bethe-Salpeter equation
3

, yet there still remainsome unsolved problems
4
. In summary, there do not existgenerally accepted relativistic wave equations for the
 N 
-particle case.If one was able to find a relativistic generalization of Eqs.
1
and
2
, it should be possible to derive such relativisticwave equations for the many-particle case. Some years ago,a framework named relativistic Schro¨dinger theory
RST
has been proposed
5,6
as a possible step in that direction.However, the RST field equations constitute a system of non-linear partial differential equations, which up to now hasbeen difficult to solve. In this paper, we solve most of theRST field equations using a general ansatz and show howRST deals with relativistic many-particle systems.The essential difference between the RST approach andconventional quantum theory is the way in which many-particle states are constructed from one-particle states;whereas conventional QM constructs many-particle states asproduct states from one-particle states, e.g., for two particles
in coordinate space
:
 
1
 x
   
1
,
 
2
 x
   
2
,
,
4
such that the total wave function depends on different pointsof space, the RST approach is considering the wave functionof a many-particle system as being constructed as the directsum of one-particle states at the
same
point of space-time:
 x
 
1
 x
 
2
 x
 
1
 x
 
2
 x
.
5
One of the results of this paper is to show that using theansatz
4
in conventional QM and
5
in RST leads to thesame wave equations in the nonrelativistic case, namely, theHartree equations
7
, which constitute a set of wave equa-tions for the one-particle wave functions
 
1
and
 
2
. Theadvantage of the RST approach over conventional QM lies inthe fact that it produces a set of relativistic wave equationswhich reduce to the Hartree equations only in the nonrelativ-istic limit.Of course, the wave vector
5
must obey some dynamicalequation, which has been postulated in RST in close analogyto the nonrelativistic equation
1
:
i
c
D
H
,
6
D
 
A
,and is referred to in the following as relativistic Schro¨dingerequation
RSE
. The state vector
is a local sum
Whitneysum
8

of 
one-particle wave functions
constructed as inEq.
5

. The RSE is Lorentz and gauge covariant
5
, andintroduces as a new object the Hamiltonian field operator
H
, which is not a fixed quantity as in conventional QM,
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, 034101
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 /034101
4
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67
034101-1
 
but obeys its own set of field equations. Furthermore, theHamiltonian is non-Hermitian (
H
H
¯ 
), which does notreflect the fact that dissipation is present in the system, butmerely that the local modulus (
¯ 
) of the wave function
is variable. For concrete applications, the Hamiltonian
H
may be considered as an
 N 
complex matrix of one-formstaking its values in the Lie algebra gl(
 N 
,
C
).As the relativistic analog of the von Neumann equation
2
, the relativistic von Neumann equation
RNE
was pro-posed:
D
 I 
i
c
 I 
H
¯ 
H
 I 
7
D
 I 
 
 I 
A
,
 I 
.The Hermitian intensity matrix
 I 
¯ 
may be formally con-sidered as the relativistic analog of the density matrix.The essential new feature of the RST is clearly the usageof a Hamiltonian one-form
H
as a dynamical object. Thefield equations for
H
must be postulated in such a way thatsolutions to Eqs.
6
and
7
exist, which leads to the follow-ing curl equation:
D
H
 
D
 
H
i
c
H
,
H
 
i
c
 
,
8
referred to as the integrability condition.
 
is the fieldstrength operator of the gauge field
A
which carries theinteraction and is defined as usual in Yang-Mills theory:
 
 
A
 
 
 
A
A
,
A
 
.
9
It obeys the Yang-Mills equations
D
 
4
 
 
*
 
,
10
(
 
*
is the coupling constant
which reduce to the usualMaxwell equations in the Abelian case (
 
*
e
2
 / 
c
).The source equation for
H
guarantees the conservationof certain quantitites
such as charges, etc.
and differs formatter with and without spin. For spinless particles, we have
D
H
i
c
H
H
i
c
M
c
2
11
and for spin-1/2 particles,
D
H
i
c
H
H
i
c
M
c
2
i
c
 
 
,
12
which is equivalent to
5
 
H
 Mc
2
1
13
note that contracting Eq.
13
with
 
 
D
 
from the left yieldsEq.
12

.Until now, it was very difficult to obtain solutions to thiscoupled system of field equations. It was necessary to firstsolve the Hamiltonian dynamics
11
13
which subse-quently admits to solve the RSE
6
for
and the RNE
7
for
. However, the link between the matter fields
and
and
H
could have been obtained in a more direct way. Wewill show that both, the matter fields and the Hamiltonianmay be constructed from the same object, a group element
g
GL(
 N 
,
C
).The key point to obtain this result is the fact that theintegrability condition
8
can be solved by the followingansatz for
H
:
H
i
c
D
g
g
1
i
c
 
g
g
1
A
,
14
D
g
 
g
A
g
with
g
GL(
 N 
,
C
). Note that Eq.
14
constitutes locally thegeneral solution of Eq.
8
see Ref.
9

. The Hamiltonian
H
is therefore identified as being the sum of the Maurer-Cartan form (
 
g
)
g
1
of a group element
g
GL(
 N 
,
C
) andthe gauge field
A
, which take their values in the Lie alge-bra gl(
 N 
,
C
) and in the gauge algebra, respectively, which isfixed by the type of interaction. The knowledge of the gen-eral form of 
H
14
makes it possible to solve the RSE
6
and the RNE
7
directly, which yields for the RSE
g
*
15
(
*
being a constant complex
vector
and
 I 
gg
*
g
¯ 
16
for the RNE (
g
*
being a constant Hermitian
 N 
matrix
.The adjoint operator
g
¯ 
is the Hermitian conjugate
g
multi-plied by a constant unitary matrix
in the case of Klein-Gordon
KG
particles, this unitary matrix is
1
, and for Diracparticles, it is
 
0
). By use of the ansatz
14
, one finds thatthe conservation equation
11
is satisfied by putting
D
D
g
Mc
2
g
0,
17
where the mass operator
M
has been set proportional tounity (
M
1
for indistinguishable particles
, and for satisfy-ing Eq.
13
, one can put
i
 
D
g
 Mcg
,
18
which are nothing else than the Klein-Gordon and Diracequations for a group element
g
instead of a complex scalar
 
or a Dirac spinor
. To recover the usual KG and Diracequations, it is sufficient to let the operator equations
17
and
18
act upon the constant element
*
and exploit thedefiniton of the wave function
15
.Although the main concern of our paper are the RSTstates
5
, which constitute a subset of the pure states, itshould be noticed that it is posssible to distinguish
as inconventional quantum mechanics
between pure states andmixtures in RST by using the following criterion
10
:
BRIEF REPORTS PHYSICAL REVIEW A
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det
 I 
0 : positive mixtures
0 : pure states
0 : negative mixtures
19
in conventional QM, one considers only the positive mix-tures
. Although the intensity matrix is a local quantity, vary-ing from one space-time point to another space-time point,the sign of det
 I 
is always fixed, as can be seen immediatelyfrom Eq.
16
:det
 I 
det
g g
*
g
¯ 
det
g
2
det
g
*
,
20
such that det
depends only on the sign of the constantdet(
g
*
). A pure state
det
0) can therefore only be ap-proached by a mixture if det(
g
)
0 in a region of space-time.Most of the recent papers on RST have been consideringmixture configurations
10,11
. Clearly, the relationship be-tween mixtures and pure states is very important and inter-esting, however, if one wants to link RST and conventionalQM, it is more instructive to consider a very simple casefirst, namely, that of two particles with electromagnetic in-teractions approximated by a pure state of the form
5
be-ing the equivalent of the product state
4
of conventionalQM
.In conventional QM, the problem of two bound particlesin the field of a nucleus
with charge
) is given by theSchro¨dinger equation
1
and the following Hamiltonian
ˆ 
:
 H ˆ 
2
2
m
1
2
 Ze
2
 x
   
1
 Ze
2
 x
   
2
e
2
 x
   
1
 x
   
2
.
21
To get a lowest-order approximative solution to Eq.
1
, letus assume that this solution may be written as a product stateof the form
4
. The optimal single-particle wave functions
 
1
and
 
2
are then determined by minimizing the energyfunctional
 H ˆ 
constructed from the static Schro¨-dinger equation
 E 
 H ˆ 
22
using the ansatz
4
for
in time-independent form
see,e.g., Ref.
12

. The constraint that the one-particle wavefunctions have to be normalized to unity
 
i
(
 x
)
2
dV 
1
is taken into account by adding Lagrangian multipliers
 
i
,such that the functional
to be minimized is of the follow-ing form:
 H ˆ 
i
 
i
 
i
 x
2
d
1
.
23
The result of this variation process are the Hartree equations
2
2
 M 
i
 Ze
2
 x
   
i
i
 x
   
i
 
i
 x
   
i
 
i
 
i
 x
   
i
,
24
with the potentials
i
being defined as
i
 x
   
i
 j
i
e
2
 x
   
i
 x
   
 j
 
 j
 x
 j
  
2
3
 x
 j
.
25
For our special problem of two particles, we put (
i
,
 j
1,2).The Lagrangian parameters
 
i
are interpreted as the ion-ization energy of the
i
th particle under the assumption thatall the other one-particle states remain unchanged
Koop-mans’ theorem
13

. The Hartree equations
24
are localequations for the
 
i
, i.e., involve only quantities at the samespace point
x
   
 x
   
i
(
i
1, . . . ,
 N 
). However, they involve po-tentials which depend on an integration of the other wavefunctions
 
 j
(
 j
i
) over the whole three-space. This is whythe potentials
25
are considered as nonlocal quantities bysome authors. These integrals may however be considered asbeing derived from a certain form of 
local
Maxwell equa-tions
see below
.How is the same problem treated in RST? Again, we re-strict ourselves to the case of two particles. We then special-ize the group element
g
to a 2
2 matrix, put one column tozero and retain only the other one. Equation
17
is thenreduced to the following vector equation:
 
A
 
A
 
1
 
2
Mc
2
 
1
 
2
0.
26
We now specialize the gauge field to the case of the electro-magnetic interactions. We put
14
A
ie
c
A
2
00
A
1
ie
c
 A
2
1
 A
1
2
27
and using the Yang-Mills equations
10
in component form,we find
 
i
 
4
 
 
*
 j
i
 
 j
 
(ex)
,
28
(
i
1,2). The conserved currents
j
i
 
can be derived from thefield equations
26
and are given by
 j
i
 
i
2
 Mc
 
i
*
 
 
 
i
 
i
 
 
 
i
*
2
ie
cA
 j
 
 
i
 
i
*
,
29
(
i
,
 j
1,2;
i
 j
). The external current
j
 
(ex)
(
 j
0(ex)
,
 j
   
(ex)
) isgenerated by the static point charge of the nucleus
 j
(ex)
 j
0(ex)
 Z 
 
(
 x
   
),
 j
   
(ex)
0
   
. By using the ansatz
27
for
A
, the self-energy problem is avoided
for more details onthis point, see Ref.
14

. Using the Lorentz gauge condition(
 
 
 A
i
 
0), we get two wave equations from Eq.
28
 A
i
 
4
 
e
 j
i
 
 j
 
(ex)
.
30
The equations for the matter fields
26
and the gauge fields
30
constitute the set of relativistic wave equations whichhave to be solved in the RST approach. Note that both mag-netic as well as retardation effects are included into theseequations, whereas the exchange interactions are neglectedby the simplified ansatz
5
.
BRIEF REPORTS PHYSICAL REVIEW A
67
, 034101
2003
034101-3

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