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POULTRY RAISING part 3

POULTRY RAISING part 3

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Published by Khiko Eyao Obordo
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The poultry industry is a major cause of environmental degradation in the United States. It kills fish and other wildlife and it makes people sick. In nature chickens and turkeys range in small flocks over wide areas contributing to the health and beauty of the land. In poultry factory farming, thousands of birds are crammed unnaturally into extremely small areas. Filth, ugliness and disease are the result of this unwholesome and unnatural confin
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The poultry industry is a major cause of environmental degradation in the United States. It kills fish and other wildlife and it makes people sick. In nature chickens and turkeys range in small flocks over wide areas contributing to the health and beauty of the land. In poultry factory farming, thousands of birds are crammed unnaturally into extremely small areas. Filth, ugliness and disease are the result of this unwholesome and unnatural confin

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Khiko Eyao Obordo on Jun 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/17/2013

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CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONBackground of the Study
The poultry industry is a major cause of environmental degradationin the United States. It kills fish and other wildlife and it makes people sick.In nature chickens and turkeys range in small flocks over wide areascontributing to the health and beauty of the land. In poultry factoryfarming, thousands of birds are crammed unnaturally into extremely smallareas. Filth, ugliness and disease are the result of this unwholesome andunnatural confinement of living creatures.Poultry manure contains large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous,and potassium. According to the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, thoughhog and dairy operations produce more manure than a chicken or turkeyoperation, poultry litter--the mixture of fecal droppings, antibiotic residues,heavy metals, cysts, larvae, decaying carcasses, and sawdust the birdsare forced to bed in--has 4 times the nitrogen and 24 times the
 
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phosphorous. The annual litter from a typical broiler chicken house of22,000 birds contains as much phosphorous as in the sewage from acommunity of 6,000 people (Harkin 1997).Excess nitrogen converts to ammonia and nitrates, burning thefragile cells of land plants and poisoning ground and surface waters.Concentrated poultry waste spawns excess algae that consume aquaticnutrients and block sunlight needed by underwater grasses. In decay, thealgae suffocate fish. High levels of nitrate in groundwater used as drinkingwater can cause methemoglobinemia, a blood disorder in infants, knownalso as "blue baby disease" (Holleman 1992).With dwindling land to absorb the volume of poultry-house litter,dead birds, and slaughterhouse refuse, the industry is touting compostingand other counter technologies as partial solutions. These technologieswill be costly, tedious, and time- consuming, and they will not address theroot of the problem, including the huge consumption of fossil fuels and theintense cruelty.
 
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In the Philippines, it is said that Air emissions from Animal FeedingOperations (AFO) can be odorous. Furthermore, volatilized ammonia canbe redeposited on the earth and contribute to eutrophication of surfacewaters. Animal manures are a valuable fertilizer and soil conditioner, ifapplied under proper conditions at crop nutrient requirements. Potentialsources of manure pollution include open feedlots, pastures, treatmentlagoons, manure stockpiles or storage, and land application fields.Oxygen-demanding substances, ammonia, nutrients (particularly nitrogenand phosphorus), solids, pathogens, and odorous compounds are thepollutants most commonly associated with manure. Manure is also apotential source of salts and trace metals, and to a lesser extent,antibiotics, pesticides and hormones. This problem has been magnified aspoultry and livestock production has become more concentrated. AFOpollutants can impact surface water, groundwater, air, and soil. In surfacewater, manure's oxygen demand and ammonia content can result in fishkills and reduced biodiversity. Solids can increase turbidity and smother benthic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus can contribute toeutrophication and associated algae blooms which can producenegative aesthetic impacts and increase drinking water treatment costs.Turbidity from the blooms can reduce penetration of sunlight in the water column and thereby limit growth of sea grass beds and other submergedaquatic vegetation, which serve as critical habitat for fish, crabs, and

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