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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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MATF 104 College Algebra – Chapter 5
CHAPTER 5: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS5.1)Quadratic Functions
A
general form
of quadratic function is
cbxax x f 
++=
2
)(where
cba
,,are realnumbers and
0
a
.
The graph of any quadratic function is a
 parabola
.
 axis of symmetry vertex (max value)vertex (minimum value)
opens upward
(0
>
a
)
opens downward
(0
<
a
)
The
standard form of quadratic function
is :0 , )()(
2
+=
ah xa x f 
and the graphof quadratic function is:
a)
 y f 
(
 x
)
= a
(
 x - h
)
2
+ k 
 (after several transformation)f(
 x
) =
 x
2
vertex (
h
,
)
 xa
> 0 b)
 y x f 
(
 x
) = -
 x
2
 vertex (
h
,
)
 f 
(
 x
)
= - a
(
 x - h
)
2
+ k 
(after several transformation)
a
< 0
1
 
MATF 104 College Algebra – Chapter 5
Example:
Graph the quadratic functions below:a)1)3()(
2
++=
 x x f 
 b)8)3(2)(
2
+=
 x x f 
solution :
a)1)3()(
2
++=
 x x f 
 
h xa x f 
+=
2
)()( 0 1
>=
a
(the graph is
opens upward
) ,
h
= -3 ,
= 1
 
vertex
= (
h
,
) = (-3,1)
Intercepts
:
1013000
2
=++===
 ) ) f  y , x
 
 
 y
– intercept = (0,10)
 
Graph :
 y
10 1)3()(
2
++=
 x x f 
 1-3
 x
 b)8)3(2)(
2
+=
 x x fh xa x f 
+=
2
)()(
0 2
<=
a
(the graph is
opens downward
) ,
h
= 3 ,
= 8
 
vertex
= (
h
,
) = (3,8)
Intercepts
:10830200
2
=+===
 ) ) f  y , x
 
 
 y
– intercept = (0,-10) 1or 5234308320
22
=±===+=
 x x ) x ) x , y
 
 x
– intercept = (5,0) and (1,0)
 
Graph:
 y
8)3(2)(
2
+=
 x x f 
 81 3 5
 x
10
2
 
MATF 104 College Algebra – Chapter 5
Graphing quadratic functions of the form
 
 f 
(
 x 
) =
ax 
 
2
+
bx 
+
c
 
Let:
cbxax x f 
++=
2
)(By completing the square, we obtain:
abacab xacabab xacabab xac xab xa x f 
442 42 22 )(
2222222
+     +=+     +=+          +=+     +=
Comparing this form with the standard form of quadratic function :0 , )()(
2
+=
ah xa x f 
we obtain:
abacabh
44 ,2
2
==
so the
vertex
of the graph is :(
h
,
) =
                 
ab f ababacab
2 ,2or 44,2
2
Example:
Graph the quadratic function :32)(
2
=
 x x x f 
Solution:
Given :32)(
2
=
 x x x f 
where :
a
= 1 ,
b
= -2 ,
c
= -3The graph is
opens upward
(
a
> 0),1)1(2 )2(2
===
abh
,4321)1(
===
 f 
,
vertex
= (1,-4).
Intercept
:
3)0(,0
===
 f  y x
 
 
 y
– intercept = (0,-3)
3

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