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Aircraft Maintenance standard Practices Chapter 8

Aircraft Maintenance standard Practices Chapter 8

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Aircraft Maintenance standard Practices
Aircraft Maintenance standard Practices

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Published by: sucess2012 on Jun 06, 2012
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9/8/98AC 43.13-1BPar 8-1Page 8-1
Consult the manufac-turer’s manuals, service bulletins, and instruc-tion books regarding the repair and overhaul,inspection, installation, and maintenance of aircraft engines, for that particular make,model, and type of engine. This section listsacceptable inspection and repair proceduresthat may be used in the absence of an enginemanufacturer’s maintenance information.
A visualinspection is needed to determine the conditionof the engine and its components. An annualor 100-hour inspection should include the en-gine and nacelle group as follows.
Cold Cylinder Check.
If an engine isrunning rough the cause may be a bad ignitionlead, a spark plug not firing, a partially cloggedfuel injector, or a bad magneto. The dead cyl-inder will be colder than the surrounding cyl-inders and can be quickly determined by usingthe recommended cold cylinder checks. Thisshould be done using a thermocouple probewhich is very sensitive to small differences intemperature, which is the case with a partially-clogged injector. For a carbureted engine, thefollowing check may be helpful:
Using experienced personnel, runthe engine on the bad magneto for approxi-mately 30 seconds at 1200 rpm. Withoutswitching the magneto switch back to bothshut off the engine. Have another mechanicuse a grease pencil (non-carbon), and quicklymark each exhaust stack approximately 1 inchfrom the flange that holds the exhaust stack tothe cylinder. Next, check the exhaust stacksand look for the exhaust stack whose greasepencil mark has not turned to a grayish-whiteor ash color. This is the cold cylinder.
The probable cause of the cold cyl-inder is either a defective spark plug or igni-tion lead. Switch spark plugs to another cylin-der and run the test again. If the problem stayswith the original cylinder, the problem is eitherthe ignition lead or the magneto.
Piston Engine Sudden Stoppage In-spection.
Sudden stoppage is a very rapid andcomplete stoppage of the engine. It can becaused by engine seizure or by one or more of the propeller blades striking an object in such away that rpm goes to zero in less than onecomplete revolution of the propeller. Suddenstoppage can cause internal damage to con-stant-speed propellers; reduction drive; geartrain damage in the accessory section; crank-shaft misalignment; or damage to accessoriessuch as magnetos, generators, vacuum pumps,and tach generators.
Every engine that suffers a suddenstoppage must be inspected in accordance withthe manufacturer’s maintenance instructionsbefore being returned to service.
If the engine manufacturer does notprovide the required information, then the en-gine case must be opened and every majorcomponent part must be inspected using visualand/or nondestructive inspection (NDI) proce-dures as applicable.
The sudden-stoppage inspectionsinclude: checking for cowling, spinner, andairframe cracks and hidden damage; andalignment of the engine mount to the airframe,
AC 43.13-1B9/8/98Page 8-2Par 8-2
the mounting hardware, isolation mounts, andbushings. The aircraft’s firewall must also bechecked for distortion, cracks, and elongatedbolt holes. The damaged propeller must besent to an FAA-certificated repair station forcomplete NDI and repair.
Engine accessories such as: magne-tos, starters, fuel pumps, turbochargers, alter-nators, or generators must be inspected in ac-cordance with the manufacturer’s maintenancemanual on sudden stoppage or overhaul proce-dures to determine the product’s airworthiness.
Reciprocating Engine (Direct Drive).
Preliminary inspection before tear down.
Remove the engine cowling and ex-amine the engine for visible external damageand audible internal damage.
Rotate the propeller shaft to deter-mine any evidence of abnormal grinding orrubbing sounds.
With the propeller removed, inspectthe crankshaft flange or splines for signs of twisting, cracks, or other deformation. Re-move the thrust-bearing nut and seal and thor-oughly inspect the threaded area of the shaftfor evidence of cracks.
Rotate the shaft slowly in 90-degreeincrements while using a dial indicator or anequivalent instrument to check the concentric-ity of the shaft.
Remove the oil sump drain plug andcheck for metal chips and foreign material.
Remove the oil screens and inspectfor metal particles and contamination.
Visually inspect engine case exteriorfor signs of oil leaks and cracks. Giveparticular attention to the propeller thrust-bearing area of the nose case section.
Inspect cylinders and cylinder hold-down area for cracks and oil leaks. Thor-oughly investigate any indication of cracks, oilleaks, or other damage.
Internal Inspection Requirements.(1)
On engines equipped with crank-shaft vibration dampers, remove and inspectthe cylinders, and inspect the crankshaft damp-ers in accordance with the engine manufac-turer’s inspection and overhaul manual. Whenengine design permits, remove the damperpins, and examine the pins and damper linersfor signs of nicks or brinelling.
After removing the engine-drivenaccessories, remove the accessory drive caseand examine the accessory and superchargerdrive gear train, couplings, and drive case forevidence of damage.
Check for cracks in the case inthe area of accessory mount pads and gearshaft bosses.
Check the gear train for signs of cracked, broken, or brinelled teeth.
Check the accessory drive shaftcouplings for twisted splines, misalignment,and run-out.
Check connecting rods for cracksand straightness.
Reciprocating Engine (Gear-Drive).
Inspect the engine, propeller, (refer to section 4on propeller inspection), and components asdescribed in the preceding paragraphs.
Remove the propeller reduction gearhousing and inspect for:
9/8/98AC 43.13-1BPar 8-2Page 8-3
Loose, sheared, or spalled capscrews or bolts.
Cracks in the case.
Disassemble the gear train and in-spect the propeller shaft, reduction gears andaccessory drive gears for nicks, cracks, orspalling.
Engine-Mount Inspection.(1)
Examine the engine flex mountswhen applicable, for looseness of engine tomount, distortion, or signs of wear.
Inspect the engine-mount structurefor bent, cracked, or buckled tubes.
Check the adjacent airframe struc-ture firewall for cracks, distortion, or wrinkles.
Remove engine-mount bolts andmount hold-down bolts and replace.
Exhaust-driven Supercharger(Turbo) Inspection.
Sudden stoppage of thepowerplant can cause the heat in turbine partsto heat-soak the turbine seals and bearings.This excessive heat causes carbon to developin the seal area and varnish to form on the tur-bine bearings and journals.
Inspect all air ducts and connectionsfor air leaks, warpage, or cracks.
Remove compressor housing andcheck the turbine wheel for rubbing or binding,and coke or varnish buildup.
NOTE: Turbine turbo superchargerdisk seal rubbing is not unusual andmay be a normal condition. Consultthe engine manufacturer’s inspectionprocedures and table of limits.h.
Accessory and Drive Inspection.
Check the drive shaft of each accessory, i.e.,magnetos, generators, external superchargers,and pumps for evidence of damage.
Carefully in-spect for misalignment and replace if bent be-yond the manufacturer’s permissible servicelimit. Worn journals may be repaired by re-grinding in accordance with manufacturers’ in-structions. It is recommended that grindingoperations be performed by appropriately-ratedrepair stations or the original engine manufac-turer. Common errors that occur in crankshaftgrinding are the removal of nitrided journalsurface, improper journal radii, unsatisfactorysurfaces, and grinding tool marks on the jour-nals. If the fillets are altered, do not reducetheir radii. Polish the reworked surfaces to as-sure removal of all tool marks. Most opposedengines have nitrided crankshafts, and enginemanufacturers specify that these crankshaftsmust be re-nitrided after grinding.
NOTE: Rapid deceleration or mo-mentary slowing of a propeller mayoccur due to contact with tall grass,water, or snow. If this occurs, the en-gine and propeller should be inspectedin accordance with the manufac-turer’s instruction or service bulletins.8-4.
Engine replacementparts must be approved under Title 14 of theCode of Federal Regulations (14 CFR),part 21. Serviceable parts obtained from theengine manufacturer, authorized service facil-ity, and those which are approved FederalAviation Administration (FAA)/Parts Manu-facture Approval (PMA), or Technical Stan-dard Order (TSO), and meet the requirementsof part 21 are acceptable for use as replace-ment parts. Used engine parts can be installed

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