the tenet of “think globally, act locally”
which would tend to suggest an relatively undifferentiatedmarketing mix with some differentiation of product and/or services in geographic areas. More recentliterature presents a more sophisticated view informed more by consumer behaviour. De Mooij, M(2007) argues here that; “local markets are people, global markets are products” suggesting thatconsumers will make a purchasing decision informed by culture and values
and that only in very rarecases, e.g. Coca Cola, can a product transcend local markets. This, however is more due to the successof the brand.The product lifecycle in an international marketplaceThroughout the literature there is a great deal of consensus on the fact that the total lifespan of a product in the international marketplace has become shorter. Earlier analyses such as Baker, M (1993)view this as a reason to recover the total product investment as quickly as possible and argue that thiscan be achieved most readily through increased marketing standardisation.
A more sophisticated viewis presented in Hollensen, S (2007) where there is a distinction made between a macroeconomic and amicroeconomic approach
.The macroeconomic approach sees production and initial demandestablished in the “innovating country”. Later, as the product matures, excess demand is exported toother developed countries followed by a later phase of maturity where demand is created indeveloping countries where production is established. Finally, the developing countries export thesame product to their former suppliers. Crucially, the microeconomic approach shows that various products in the firm's marketing mix can be simultaneously at different points in the life cycle.Developments in global marketing researchThe earlier and later literature differs little on those variables which can skew research results whenresearch is done on a global scale. Language interference, cultural values, consumption patterns,socioeconomic variables within market segments all receive significant analysis
.What tends to bemore pronounced in the later literature is the increasing role of marketing research output infacilitating decision-making as well as the recognition that global marketing research is more complexand requires both primary and secondary research. Hollense, S, in particular, recognises the cost andtime benefits of accessing secondary data
, and here, the Internet must serve as a major source of secondary marketing data that did not exist in 1993.The factors at work in the decision to enter a global marketFollowing on from marketing research the political and economic environment are given significantemphasis in the majority of marketing literature. Hollense, S (2007) discusses also the “layers of culture”
from the national culture influencing down to the individual's preferences. This is not