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Nuclear Lobbying Report

Nuclear Lobbying Report

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Published by Andrea Stone

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Published by: Andrea Stone on Jun 06, 2012
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By William D. Hartung with Christine AndersonJune 2012 
E
xEcutivE
S
ummary
The battle over decits and defense has focused attention on the costs of nuclear weapons. Estimates of the full costs of nuclear weapons-related activities are hotly debated, but there is no question that they will reach hundredsof billions of dollars over the next decade. At a time of tight budgets, there is a real possibility that some of the systems and facilities described so far could be reduced, delayed, or cancelled outright. For example, former Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General James Cartwright noted in July 2011, “The challenge here is that we have to re-capitalize all three legs[of the nuclear triad], and we don’t have the money to do it.” That same month, General Robert Kehler, the head of U.S. Strategic Command, asserted, “We’re not going to be able to go forward with weapon systems that cost what weapon systems cost today.”This report provides a prole of the nuclear weapons lobby, noting along the way that in a constrained budget-ary environment different parts of the lobby may either collaborate to promote higher nuclear weapons spend-ing or compete for their share of a shrinking pie.
B
omBs
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udgets
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nsIde
 
the
n
uclear 
eapons
oBBy 
 An Ohio-Class Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN), slated to be replaced by a Next Generation Sub.
 A Publication of the Center for International Policy
 
 A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
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•ThePentagonandtheDepartmentofEnergy’s NationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationarescheduledtospendhundredsofbillionsofdollarsonnuclearweaponsprojectsoverthenextdecadeandbeyond,including$68billiontodevelopand purchaseanewgenerationofnuclearbombers;$347billiontopurchaseandoperate12newballis-ticmissilesubmarines;andbillionsmoreonnewnuclearweaponsfacilities.•Inthe2012electioncycle,thetop14nuclearweaponscontractorsgaveatotalof$2.9milliontokeymembersofCongresswithdecisionmak-ingpowerovernuclearweaponsspending.Thesermshavedonated$18.7milliontothesesamemembersofCongressoverthecourseoftheircareers.•Morethanhalfofthecontributionscitedabovewenttomembersofthefourkeysubcommitteeswithjurisdictionovernuclearweaponsspending–theStrategicForcesSubcommitteesoftheArmedServicesCommitteesineachhouseandtheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteesoftheAppropriationsCommitteesineachhouse.Totalcontributionsbymajornuclearweaponscontractorstomembersofthesefoursubcommitteeshavebeenover$1.6millioninthe2012electioncyclethusfar,and$11.7lifetimetothesesamemembers.•Ofthe14nuclearweaponscontractorstrackedinthisreport,LockheedMartinhasbeenthebig-gestcontributortokeymembersofCongresswithinuenceovernuclearweaponsspending.Sofarduringthe2012electioncycle,LockheedMartinhasdonated$535,000tothesekeymembers;othermajordonorsincludeHoneywellInternational,$464,582;NorthropGrumman,$464,000;andBoeing,$336,750.•Leadingadvocatesofhighlevelsofnuclearweap-onsspendinghavereceivedhundredsofthousandsofdollarsincampaigncontributionsfrommajornuclearweaponscontractorsinthecourseoftheircareers.TheseadvocatesincludeHouseArmedServicesCommitteeChairRep.HowardP.“Buck”McKeon(R-CA),withcareerreceiptsof$809,150fromthesecompanies;Rep.MichaelTurner(R-OH),ChairoftheStrategicForcesSubcom-mitteeoftheHouseArmedServicesCommittee,with$144,400incareerreceipts;andSen.JonKyl(R-AZ),with$250,875incareerreceipts.Rep.DennyRehberg(R-MT),whosponsored
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olicy
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EcommEndationS
r
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thE
 
balliStic
 
miSSilE
 
SubmarinE
 
ForcE
Th
e ballistic missile submarine force should be reduced from 12 boats to eight, with additional war-heads carried in each boat. This would save $18 billion over the next decade while sustaining thecapability to deploy the number of warheads called for under the New START treaty.
P
oStPonE
 
nEw
 
nuclEar
 
bombEr
 
PlanS
Plans for a new nuclear bomber should be shelved, at a savings of $18 billion over the next decade. At a minimum, the bomber should not be made nuclear-capable.
c
ancEl
 
thE
c
hEmical
 
and
m
Etallurgy
r
ESEarch
r
EPlacEmEnt
 
Facility
There is no circumstance under which it will be necessary to build large numbers of new plutonium“pits” or triggers for nuclear warheads. Therefore, the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Replace-ment facility at Los Alamos National Laboratories should be cancelled, at a savings of $5 billion over the next decade.
c
ancEl
 
building
 
thE
m
ixEd
o
xidE
(mox)
Facility
Plutonium waste from nuclear warheads can be neutralized without building the multi-billion dollar MOX facility. It too should be cancelled, at a savings of at least $4.9 billion in construction costs over the next twenty years.
Forgoing or slowing these projects would save $46 billion over the next two decades, and hundreds of billions more over the prospective lifetimes of the programs.
 
 A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy A Publication of the Center for International Policy
3
anamendmentdesignedtoblockfundingfortheimplementationoftheNewSTARTarmsreductiontreatywithRussiaandprotectICBMsbasedinhishomestate,hasreceived$118,990fromnuclearweaponscontractorsinhiscareerinCongress.•Thetopthreerecipientsofcontributionsfromma- jornuclearweaponscontractorsintheHouseforthe2012electioncycleareHouseArmedServicesCommitteeChairHowardP.“Buck”McKeon,$257,570;Rep.NormDicks(D-WA),theRankingDemocratontheHouseDefenseAppropriationsSubcommittee,andamajorboosterofthebuildingofanewbomber,$110,000;andRep.MacThorn- berry(R-TX),amemberoftheStrategicForcesSubcommitteeoftheHouseArmedServicesCom-mittee,$87,250.•Thetopthreerecipientsofcontributionsfromma- jornuclearweaponscontractorsintheSenateforthe2012electioncycleareSen.DianneFeinstein(D-CA),ChairoftheSubcommitteeonEnergyandWateroftheSenateAppropriationsCommittee(thecommitteethatoverseesthenuclearwarheadcomplex),$74,500;Sen.KirstenGillibrand(D- NY),amemberoftheSubcommitteeonStrategicForcesoftheSenateArmedServicesCommittee,$54,916;andSen.JonTester(D-MT)amemberoftheSubcommitteeonEnergyandWateroftheSenateAppropriationsCommitteeandmemberoftheSenateICBMcoalition,$53,500.•Thetop14nuclearweaponscontractorsemploy137lobbyistswhoformerlyworkedforkeynucle-arweaponsdecisionmakers.Themajorityoftherevolvingdoorlobbyists–96–workedforkeymembersofCongressorkeyCongressionalCom-mittees;26revolvingdoorlobbyistsworkedforoneofthemilitaryservices;and24revolvingdoorlobbyistsworkedfortheDepartmentofDefenseortheDepartmentofEnergy.SomelobbyistsworkedforoneormoreCongressionalofcesoragencies beforeleavinggovernment,andmanynowworkformorethanonemajornuclearweaponscontrac-tor.•Thereare19revolvingdoorlobbyistsworkingformajornuclearweaponscontractorswhowerestaffersformembersoftheEnergyandWaterSubcommitteeoftheSenateAppropriationsCom-mittee–thecommitteethatcontrolsspendingonthenuclearwarheadcomplex.
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Thebattleoverdecitsanddefensehasfocusedat-tentiononthecostsofnuclearweapons.Estimatesofthefullcostsofnuclearweapons-relatedactivitiesarehotlydebated,butthereisnoquestionthattheywillreachhundredsofbillionsofdollarsoverthenextde-cade.StephenI.SchwartzoftheMonterreyInstituteforInternationalStudieshascalledforthefederalgov-ernmenttoregularlypublishestimatesofthefullcostsofnuclearweapons,includingresearchanddevelop-ment(R&D),procurement,operations,andsupportfunctionslikecommand,controlandcommunications.AsSchwartzhasnoted,“There’snoeasywaytodeter-minewhatspendingwillbegoingforward,especially becausetherehasneverbeenanofcial,comprehen-sivenuclearweaponsbudget.”
1
Whatwedoknowisthatthereareofcialestimatesofthecostsofkeyelementsofthenuclearenterprise.If pastexperienceisanyguide,theseestimatesarelikelytogrowovertime,butatthemomenttheyinclude:•Upto100newnuclearbombersatcostofatleast$55billion;
2
•Twelvenewnuclearsubmarinesatacostof$96 billionforprocurementandresearchanddevel-opmentand$347billioninfulllife-cyclecosts(includingoperationsandmaintenance)overthenextvedecades;
3
•Newnuclearwarhead-relatedfacilities,includinglocationsfortheproductionofuranium,plutoni-um,andnon-nuclearcomponents,atanestimatedcostofwellover$13billion;
4
•AfacilityfortheproductionofMixedOxide(MOX),apotentialfuelfornuclearpowerplants basedonexcessplutoniumgeneratedbythenuclearwarheadprogram,ataconstructioncostofatleast$4.9billion.
5
Thisisnotanexhaustivelist.OtheritemsslatedfordevelopmentbythePentagonandtheDepartmentofEnergy’sNationalNuclearSecurityAdministration(theagencychargedwithoverseeingthenuclearweap-onscomplex)includeLifeExtensionPrograms(LEPs)forexistingnuclearwarheads;possibleupgradesorreplacementsforexistingland-basedIntercontinentalBallisticMissiles(ICBMs);thepossibledevelopmentofanewgenerationofnuclear-armedAir-Launched

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