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Published by: metin_mehel8130 on Dec 30, 2008
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TRITA-MMK 2000:ISSN 1400-11ISRN/KTH/MMK/R--00/12--S
Wear of spur and helical gears
Anders Flodin
Stockholm2000Doctoral ThesisDepartment of Machine DesignRoyal Institute of TechnologyS-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Wear of gear flanks is an observed and always present phenomenon in gearboxes. To thispoint, few investigations addressing the problem of quantifying the amount of wear as well asits distribution have been carried out. In this thesis the amount and distribution of mild wear ispredicted using several existing wear models and numerical methods. Both spur- and helicalgears are treated. Finally a test series is run on an FZG machine in order to evaluate both thewear development of a gear wheel as well as its distribution. This test is also compared tosimulated results for evaluation of the simulation.Since minor changes of the shape of a surface can lead to significantly increased surfacepressures, even mild wear on a gear flank can lead to surface pressures above fatigue limits.In order to simulate and predict the wear of spur gears it is necessary to find the contact forcesand the conditions under which the contact take place. An FZG-like test wheel set wastherefore modelled using a Winkler elastic foundation model to predict surface behaviour anda modified Archard's equation to determine the wear. Since the wear mechanism on a gearflank can vary, two other types of phenomenological models were tested namely an oxidationmodel and an adsorption model. The modified Archard's model was found to adequatelydescribe the wear and it was therefore used in simulation of wear of helical gear wheels. Thehelical gear was modelled with the same parameters as the FZG-like gears but with a helicalangle. The tooth itself was regarded as several very thin uncoupled spur gears, which areallowed to deform individually, mounted on a common axis. In this simulation, the surfaceswere regarded as Hertz surfaces. It was found that the wear, with time, tended to smooth thedifferences in wear distribution across root and tip. The transmission error under load wasalso investigated and found to be reduced by the wear.An investigation of the real wear development on a set of FZG gear wheels was carried outwhere plastic replicas of the flanks were made to avoid dismounting the gear wheels. Replicaswere made after a time schedule with more stops towards the beginning of the test to monitorthe wear in. The replicas as well as the gear teeth were analysed using optical microscopy,SEM and stylus instrument. Focus may be brought upon the very rapid initial wear at the startof the active flank of the pinion. The deviation from the original involute tooth shape foundwhere the number of teeth in mesh changes was also worth noticing. Examining a tooth flank as a whole, a wave pattern was introduced. The results from the analysis were used toevaluate the wear simulations, which was found to well describe the mild wear of a toothsurface. At areas not prevailed by mild wear, such as the root of the pinion, specialconsideration had to be taken.
: Contact; Wear; Gears; FZG, Simulation; Wear models, Wear investigation.
Outline of thesis
This thesis concerns modeling, simulation and investigation of wear of spur- and helicalgears. It contains an introduction and the following five papers. The papers are referred to bytheir capital Latin character. The included papers are:
AFlodin, A. and Andersson, S., (1997)
Simulation of Mild Wear in Spur Gears.
Wear, vol. 207, pp. 16-23BFlodin, A. and Andersson, S., (1999)
Wear Simulation of Spur Gears.
Tribotest Journal, vol 5-3, pp.225-250.CFlodin, A. and Andersson S., (1998)
Simulation of Mild Wear in Helical Gears
. Presented atAustrib’98, Selected for publication in
DFlodin, A. (1999)
Wear Investigation of Spur Gear Teeth.
Accepted for publication inTribotest Journal.
EFlodin, A. and Andersson, S. (2000)
 A Simplified Model for Wear Prediction in Helical Gears.
To bepresented at Nordtrib 2000 June 11-14 FinlandThe work carried out in this thesis was initiated and supervised by Professor Sören Andersson. In paper A, B, C,E Anders Flodin performed the main part of the work and Sören Andersson contributed with theories.

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